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shadow banking: a review of the literature

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  • Tobias Adrian
  • Adam B. Ashcraft

Abstract

We provide an overview of the rapidly evolving literature on shadow credit intermediation. The shadow banking system consists of a web of specialised financial institutions that conduct credit, maturity, and liquidity transformation without direct, explicit access to public backstops. The lack of such access to sources of government liquidity and credit backstops makes shadow banks inherently fragile. Much of shadow banking activities is intertwined with the operations of core regulated institutions such as bank holding companies and insurance companies, thus creating a source of systemic risk for the financial system at large. We review fundamental reasons for the existence of shadow banking, explain the functioning of shadow banking institutions and activities, discuss why shadow banks need to be regulated, and review the impact of recent reform efforts on shadow banking credit intermediation.

Suggested Citation

  • Tobias Adrian & Adam B. Ashcraft, 2012. "shadow banking: a review of the literature," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:dofeco:v:6:year:2012:doi:3890
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    9. Tobias Adrian & Karin Kimbrough & Dina Marchioni, 2011. "The Federal Reserve’s Commercial Paper Funding Facility," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue May, pages 25-39.
    10. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2009. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(6), pages 2201-2238, June.
    11. Gorton, Gary & Metrick, Andrew, 2012. "Securitized banking and the run on repo," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(3), pages 425-451.
    12. John Geanakoplos & Ana Fostel, 2008. "Leverage Cycles and the Anxious Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1211-1244, September.
    13. Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina, 2012. "Intermediary leverage cycles and financial stability," Staff Reports 567, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Feb 2015.
    14. Mathis, Jérôme & McAndrews, James & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 2009. "Rating the raters: Are reputation concerns powerful enough to discipline rating agencies?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 657-674, July.
    15. Tobias Adrian & Brian Begalle & Adam Copeland & Antoine Martin, 2013. "Repo and Securities Lending," NBER Chapters,in: Risk Topography: Systemic Risk and Macro Modeling, pages 131-148 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Patrick E. McCabe & Marco Cipriani & Michael Holscher & Antoine Martin, 2012. "The minimum balance at risk: a proposal to mitigate the systemic risks posed by money market funds," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-47, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    17. Tobias Adrian & Christopher R. Burke & James J. McAndrews, 2009. "The Federal Reserve's Primary Dealer Credit Facility," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 15(Aug).
    18. Wayne Passmore & Shane M. Sherlund & Gillian Burgess, 2005. "The Effect of Housing Government-Sponsored Enterprises on Mortgage Rates," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 33(3), pages 427-463, September.
    19. Avraham, Dafna & Selvaggi, Patricia & Vickery, James, 2012. "A Structural view of U.S. bank holding companies," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 07, pages 65-81.
    20. Tobias Adrian & Adam B. Ashcraft, 2012. "Shadow Banking Regulation," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 4(1), pages 99-140, October.
    21. Tobias Adrian & Michael J. Fleming, 2005. "What financing data reveal about dealer leverage," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 11(Mar).
    22. Gorton, Gary, 1985. "Clearinghouses and the Origin of Central Banking in the United States," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(02), pages 277-283, June.
    23. Tyler Wiggers & Adam B. Ashcraft, 2012. "Defaults and losses on commercial real estate bonds during the Great Depression era," Staff Reports 544, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    24. Adam Copeland & Antoine Martin & Michael Walker, 2014. "Repo Runs: Evidence from the Tri-Party Repo Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(6), pages 2343-2380, December.
    25. Raghuram G. Rajan, 2005. "Has financial development made the world riskier?," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Aug, pages 313-369.
    26. Olivier Armantier & Sandra C. Krieger & James J. McAndrews, 2008. "The Federal Reserve's Term Auction Facility," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 14(Jul).
    27. Adrian, Tobias & Shin, Hyun Song, 2010. "Liquidity and leverage," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 418-437, July.
    28. Michael J. Fleming & Warren B. Hrung & Frank M. Keane, 2010. "Repo Market Effects of the Term Securities Lending Facility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 591-596, May.
    29. Merton, Robert C. & Bodie, Zvi, 1993. "Deposit insurance reform: a functional approach," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 1-34, June.
    30. Mandel, Benjamin H. & Morgan, Donald P. & Wei, Chenyang, 2012. "The Role of bank credit enhancements in securitization," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 07, pages 35-46.
    31. Benjamin J. Keys & Tanmoy Mukherjee & Amit Seru & Vikrant Vig, 2010. "Did Securitization Lead to Lax Screening? Evidence from Subprime Loans," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 125(1), pages 307-362.
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    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Cited by:

    1. Daniel Covitz & Nellie Liang & Tobias Adrian, 2015. "Financial Stability Monitoring," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 357-395, December.
    2. Artak Harutyunyan & Alexander Massara & Giovanni Ugazio & Goran Amidzic & Richard Walton, 2015. "Shedding Light on Shadow Banking," IMF Working Papers 15/1, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Adrian, Tobias & Liang, J. Nellie, 2014. "Monetary policy, financial conditions, and financial stability," Staff Reports 690, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Dec 2016.
    4. Gong, Rui & Page, Frank, 2016. "Shadow banks and systemic risks," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 66044, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    5. Razvan STEFANESCU & Ramona DUMITRIU, 2014. "A State-Owned Payment And Savings System As An Alternative To The Banking Regulations Strengthening," Risk in Contemporary Economy, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, pages 297-301.
    6. Tobias Adrian & Adam B. Ashcraft & Nicola Cetorelli, 2013. "Shadow bank monitoring," Staff Reports 638, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    7. Alberto Botta & Eugenio Caverzasi & Daniele Tori, 2015. "Financial–Real-Side Interactions in an Extended Monetary Circuit with Shadow Banking: Loving or Dangerous Hugs?," International Journal of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(3), pages 196-227, July.
    8. Garratt, Rodney J. & Mahadeva, Lavan & Svirydzenka, Katsiaryna, 2014. "The great entanglement: The contagious capacity of the international banking network just before the 2008 crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 367-385.
    9. Adrian, Tobias, 2014. "Financial stability policies for shadow banking," Staff Reports 664, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    10. Havran, Dániel & Erb, Tamás, 2015. "Mit veszítünk a piaci súrlódásokkal?. A pénzügyi piacok mikrostruktúrája
      [Trading mechanisms and market frictions. Microstructure of the financial markets]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(3), pages 229-262.
    11. Gertler, M. & Kiyotaki, N. & Prestipino, A., 2016. "Wholesale Banking and Bank Runs in Macroeconomic Modeling of Financial Crises," Handbook of Macroeconomics, Elsevier.
    12. Mario Tonveronachi, 2013. "De-globalising bank regulation," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 66(267), pages 371-385.
    13. repec:eee:finlet:v:21:y:2017:i:c:p:163-171 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Grochulski, Borys & Zhang, Yuzhe, 2015. "Optimal Liquidity Regulation With Shadow Banking," Working Paper 15-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, revised 15 Oct 2015.
    15. Ingmar Schumacher, 2014. "On the Self," Working Papers 2014-51, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    16. Abad, Jorge & D'Errico, Marco & Killeen, Neill & Luz, Vera & Peltonen, Tuomas & Portes, Richard & Urbano, Teresa, 2017. "Mapping the interconnectedness between EU banks and shadow banking entities," CEPR Discussion Papers 11919, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Rolf H. Weber & Douglas W. Arner & Evan C. Gibson & Simone Baumann, 2014. "Addressing systemic risk in East Asia: financial regulatory design," Chapters,in: Global Shock, Risks, and Asian Financial Reform, chapter 6, pages 204-245 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    18. Li, Xuelian & Lin, Jyh-Horng, 2016. "Shadow-banking entrusted loan management, deposit insurance premium, and capital regulation," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 98-109.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    shadow banking; financial stability; financial intermediation; securitization; narrow banking; implicit guarantee; asset-backed commercial paper; tri-party repo; government-sponsored enterprise; credit derivatives; financial guarantees; money market mutual funds;

    JEL classification:

    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises

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