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Financial Regulation in General Equilibrium


  • Charles A.E. Goodhart
  • Anil K. Kashyap
  • Dimitrios P. Tsomocos
  • Alexandros P. Vardoulakis


This paper explores how different types of financial regulation could combat many of the phenomena that were observed in the financial crisis of 2007 to 2009. The primary contribution is the introduction of a model that includes both a banking system and a "shadow banking system" that each help households finance their expenditures. Households sometimes choose to default on their loans, and when they do this triggers forced selling by the shadow banks. Because the forced selling comes when net worth of potential buyers is low, the ensuing price dynamics can be described as a fire sale. The proposed framework can assess five different policy options that officials have advocated for combating defaults, credit crunches and fire sales, namely: limits on loan to value ratios, capital requirements for banks, liquidity coverage ratios for banks, dynamic loan loss provisioning for banks, and margin requirements on repurchase agreements used by shadow banks. The paper aims to develop some general intuition about the interactions between the tools and to determine whether they act as complements and substitutes.

Suggested Citation

  • Charles A.E. Goodhart & Anil K. Kashyap & Dimitrios P. Tsomocos & Alexandros P. Vardoulakis, 2012. "Financial Regulation in General Equilibrium," NBER Working Papers 17909, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:17909
    Note: ME CF EFG

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2009. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(6), pages 2201-2238, June.
    2. Charles Goodhart & Pojanart Sunirand & Dimitrios Tsomocos, 2006. "A model to analyse financial fragility," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 27(1), pages 107-142, January.
    3. Pradeep Dubey & John Geanakoplos & Martin Shubik, 2005. "Default and Punishment in General Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(1), pages 1-37, January.
    4. Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 2011. "Fire Sales in Finance and Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 29-48, Winter.
    5. Tsomocos, Dimitrios P., 2003. "Equilibrium analysis, banking and financial instability," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(5-6), pages 619-655, July.
    6. Tobias Adrian & Hyun Song Shin, 2009. "Money, Liquidity, and Monetary Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 600-605, May.
    7. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2000. "A Theory of Bank Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2431-2465, December.
    8. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    9. Pradeep Dubey & John Geanakoplos, 2006. "Determinacy with nominal assets and outside money," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 27(1), pages 79-106, January.
    10. repec:hrv:faseco:33077925 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 2005. "From Cash-in-the-Market Pricing to Financial Fragility," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 535-546, 04/05.
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    Cited by:

    1. Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina, 2014. "Liquidity policies and systemic risk," Staff Reports 661, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    2. Laurent Clerc & Alexis Derviz & Caterina Mendicino & Stephane Moyen & Kalin Nikolov & Livio Stracca & Javier Suarez & Alexandros P. Vardoulakis, 2015. "Capital Regulation in a Macroeconomic Model with Three Layers of Default," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 11(3), pages 9-63, June.
    3. Jordà, Òscar & Schularick, Moritz & Taylor, Alan M., 2011. "When Credit Bites Back: Leverage, Business Cycles, and Crises," CEPR Discussion Papers 8678, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina, 2012. "Intermediary leverage cycles and financial stability," Staff Reports 567, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Feb 2015.
    5. Jaromir Benes & Douglas Laxton & Joannes Mongardini, 2016. "Mitigating the Deadly Embrace in Financial Cycles; Countercyclical Buffers and Loan-to-Value Limits," IMF Working Papers 16/87, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Jakab, Zoltan & Kumhof, Michael, 2015. "Banks are not intermediaries of loanable funds – and why this matters," Bank of England working papers 529, Bank of England.
    7. Luck, Stephan & Schempp, Paul, 2014. "Banks, shadow banking, and fragility," Working Paper Series 1726, European Central Bank.
    8. Arito Ono & Hirofumi Uchida & Gregory Udell & Iichiro Uesugi, "undated". "Lending Pro-Cyclicality and Macro-Prudential Policy: Evidence from Japanese LTV Ratios," Working Papers e70, Tokyo Center for Economic Research.
    9. Daniel Covitz & Nellie Liang & Tobias Adrian, 2015. "Financial Stability Monitoring," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 357-395, December.
    10. Oriol Carreras & E Philip Davis & Rebecca Piggott, 2016. "Macroprudential tools, transmission and modelling," National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) Discussion Papers 470, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
    11. Juliane M. Begenau, 2015. "Capital Requirements, Risk Choice, and Liquidity Provision in a Business Cycle Model," Harvard Business School Working Papers 15-072, Harvard Business School, revised Sep 2016.
    12. Constâncio, Vítor, 2014. "The European Crisis and the Role of the Financial System," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 250-259.
    13. Ono, Arito & Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2013. "A Close Look at Loan-To-Value Ratios: Evidence from the Japanese Real Estate Market," Working Paper Series 19, Center for Interfirm Network, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    14. Paula Garda & Volker Ziemann, 2014. "Economic Policies and Microeconomic Stability: A Literature Review and Some Empirics," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1115, OECD Publishing.
    15. Federico Lubello & Abdelaziz Rouabah, 2017. "Capturing macroprudential regulation effectiveness: A DSGE approach with shadow intermediaries," BCL working papers 114, Central Bank of Luxembourg.
    16. Otaviano Canuto & Swati R. Ghosh, 2013. "Dealing with the Challenges of Macro Financial Linkages in Emerging Markets," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 16202, June.
    17. Hartmann, Philipp & Hubrich, Kirstin & Kremer, Manfred & Tetlow, Robert J., 2013. "Melting down: Systemic financial instability and the macroeconomy," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 80487, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    18. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner, 2014. "What do we know about the effects of macroprudential policy?," DNB Working Papers 440, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    19. Charles A. E. Goodhart & Anil K Kashyap & Dimitrios P. Tsomocos & Alexandros P. Vardoulakis, 2013. "An Integrated Framework for Analyzing Multiple Financial Regulations," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(1), pages 109-144, January.
    20. repec:eee:finsta:v:29:y:2017:i:c:p:92-105 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Klimek, Peter & Poledna, Sebastian & Doyne Farmer, J. & Thurner, Stefan, 2015. "To bail-out or to bail-in? Answers from an agent-based model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 144-154.
    22. Tobias Adrian, 2012. "Discussion of “An Integrated Framework for Multiple Financial Regulations”," Staff Reports 583, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    23. cho, hyejin, 2014. "bank capital regulation model," MPRA Paper 54409, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    24. repec:clh:resear:v:8:y:2015:i:34 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Sebastiaan Pool, 2016. "Credit Defaults, Bank Lending and the Real Economy," DNB Working Papers 518, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation

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