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Financial Regulation in General Equilibrium

Author

Listed:
  • Goodhart, Ch. A. E.
  • Kashyap, A. K.
  • Tsomocos, D. P.
  • Vardoulakis, A. P.

Abstract

This paper explores how different types of financial regulation could combat many of the phenomena that were observed in the financial crisis of 2007 to 2009. The primary contribution is the introduction of a model that includes both a banking system and a “shadow banking system” that each help households finance their expenditures. Households sometimes choose to default on their loans, and when they do this triggers forced selling by the shadow banks. Because the forced selling comes when net worth of potential buyers is low, the ensuing price dynamics can be described as a fire sale. The proposed framework can assess five different policy options that officials have advocated for combating defaults, credit crunches and fire sales, namely: limits on loan to value ratios, capital requirements for banks, liquidity coverage ratios for banks, dynamic loan loss provisioning for banks, and margin requirements on repurchase agreements used by shadow banks. The paper aims to develop some general intuition about the interactions between the tools and to determine whether they act as complements and substitutes.

Suggested Citation

  • Goodhart, Ch. A. E. & Kashyap, A. K. & Tsomocos, D. P. & Vardoulakis, A. P., 2012. "Financial Regulation in General Equilibrium," Working papers 372, Banque de France.
  • Handle: RePEc:bfr:banfra:372
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Tobias Adrian & Hyun Song Shin, 2009. "Money, Liquidity, and Monetary Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 600-605, May.
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    7. Pradeep Dubey & John Geanakoplos & Martin Shubik, 2005. "Default and Punishment in General Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(1), pages 1-37, January.
    8. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    9. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 2005. "From Cash-in-the-Market Pricing to Financial Fragility," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 535-546, 04/05.
    10. Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 2011. "Fire Sales in Finance and Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 29-48, Winter.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina, 2012. "Intermediary leverage cycles and financial stability," Staff Reports 567, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Feb 2015.
    2. Ono, Arito & Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2013. "A Close Look at Loan-To-Value Ratios: Evidence from the Japanese Real Estate Market," Working Paper Series 19, Center for Interfirm Network, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    3. cho, hyejin, 2014. "bank capital regulation model," MPRA Paper 54409, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner, 2014. "What do we know about the effects of macroprudential policy?," DNB Working Papers 440, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    5. Òscar Jordà & Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2011. "When credit bites back: leverage, business cycles, and crises," Working Paper Series 2011-27, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    6. Juliane M. Begenau, 2015. "Capital Requirements, Risk Choice, and Liquidity Provision in a Business Cycle Model," Harvard Business School Working Papers 15-072, Harvard Business School, revised Sep 2016.
    7. repec:eee:finsta:v:29:y:2017:i:c:p:92-105 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Paula Garda & Volker Ziemann, 2014. "Economic Policies and Microeconomic Stability: A Literature Review and Some Empirics," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1115, OECD Publishing.
    9. Arito Ono & Hirofumi Uchida & Gregory Udell & Iichiro Uesugi, "undated". "Lending Pro-Cyclicality and Macro-Prudential Policy: Evidence from Japanese LTV Ratios," Working Papers e70, Tokyo Center for Economic Research.
    10. Klimek, Peter & Poledna, Sebastian & Doyne Farmer, J. & Thurner, Stefan, 2015. "To bail-out or to bail-in? Answers from an agent-based model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 144-154.
    11. Oriol Carreras & E Philip Davis & Rebecca Piggott, 2016. "Macroprudential tools, transmission and modelling," National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) Discussion Papers 470, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
    12. Daniel Covitz & Nellie Liang & Tobias Adrian, 2015. "Financial Stability Monitoring," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 357-395, December.
    13. Jaromir Benes & Douglas Laxton & Joannes Mongardini, 2016. "Mitigating the Deadly Embrace in Financial Cycles; Countercyclical Buffers and Loan-to-Value Limits," IMF Working Papers 16/87, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina, 2014. "Liquidity policies and systemic risk," Staff Reports 661, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    15. Laurent Clerc & Alexis Derviz & Caterina Mendicino & Stephane Moyen & Kalin Nikolov & Livio Stracca & Javier Suarez & Alexandros P. Vardoulakis, 2015. "Capital Regulation in a Macroeconomic Model with Three Layers of Default," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 11(3), pages 9-63, June.
    16. Luck, Stephan & Schempp, Paul, 2014. "Banks, shadow banking, and fragility," Working Paper Series 1726, European Central Bank.
    17. Federico Lubello & Abdelaziz Rouabah, 2017. "Capturing macroprudential regulation effectiveness: A DSGE approach with shadow intermediaries," BCL working papers 114, Central Bank of Luxembourg.
    18. Charles A. E. Goodhart & Anil K Kashyap & Dimitrios P. Tsomocos & Alexandros P. Vardoulakis, 2013. "An Integrated Framework for Analyzing Multiple Financial Regulations," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(1), pages 109-144, January.
    19. Canuto, Otaviano & Ghosh, Swati, 2013. "Dealing with the Challenges of Macro Financial Linkages in Emerging Markets," World Bank - Economic Premise, The World Bank, issue 129, pages 1-8, November.
    20. Jakab, Zoltan & Kumhof, Michael, 2015. "Banks are not intermediaries of loanable funds – and why this matters," Bank of England working papers 529, Bank of England.
    21. Tobias Adrian, 2012. "Discussion of “An Integrated Framework for Multiple Financial Regulations”," Staff Reports 583, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    22. Hartmann, Philipp & Hubrich, Kirstin & Kremer, Manfred & Tetlow, Robert J., 2013. "Melting down: Systemic financial instability and the macroeconomy," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 80487, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    23. Sebastiaan Pool, 2016. "Credit Defaults, Bank Lending and the Real Economy," DNB Working Papers 518, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    24. repec:clh:resear:v:8:y:2015:i:34 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Constâncio, Vítor, 2014. "The European Crisis and the Role of the Financial System," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 250-259.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Price setting; changeover; euro; inflation.;

    JEL classification:

    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation

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