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Modelling Household Expenditure on Health Care in Greece

Author

Listed:
  • Manos Matsaganis

    () (Athens University of Economics and Business)

  • Theodore Mitrakos

    (Bank of Greece)

  • Panos Tsakloglou

    (Athens University of Economics and Business)

Abstract

Health expenditure data are known to be afflicted by restricted range, zero values, skewness and kurtosis. Several methods for modelling such data have been suggested in the literature to cope with these problems. This paper compares the performance of several alternative estimators, including two-part models and generalized linear models. The dependent variable is household, not individual, expenditure on health care in Greece, a country where out-of-pocket health expenditure is higher than anywhere else in the European Union, whether as a proportion of GDP, as a share of all health spending, or in per capita terms. To facilitate comparison of model performance, household health expenditure is examined in two different specifications; expenditure on all health care (where zero values are rare) and expenditure on hospital services alone (where zero values are common). Three of the estimators performed almost equally well in terms of mean square error and mean absolute prediction error; a modified two-part model with non-linear least squares in the second part, a constant-variance generalized linear model, and a varianceproportional- to-mean generalized linear model. The findings suggest that no estimator is best under all circumstances, while most alternative estimators produce similar results. The paper concludes by discussing implications for further research.

Suggested Citation

  • Manos Matsaganis & Theodore Mitrakos & Panos Tsakloglou, 2008. "Modelling Household Expenditure on Health Care in Greece," Working Papers 68, Bank of Greece.
  • Handle: RePEc:bog:wpaper:68
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    5. Blough, David K. & Madden, Carolyn W. & Hornbrook, Mark C., 1999. "Modeling risk using generalized linear models," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 153-171, April.
    6. Anirban Basu & Willard G. Manning & John Mullahy, 2004. "Comparing alternative models: log vs Cox proportional hazard?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(8), pages 749-765.
    7. Elias Mossialos & Sara Allin & Konstantina Davaki, 2005. "Analysing the Greek health system: a tale of fragmentation and inertia," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(S1), pages 151-168.
    8. Andrew M. Jones, 2012. "health econometrics," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Palgrave Macmillan.
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    10. Cantoni, Eva & Ronchetti, Elvezio, 2006. "A robust approach for skewed and heavy-tailed outcomes in the analysis of health care expenditures," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 198-213, March.
    11. Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes & Zaslavsky, Alan M., 2004. "Too much ado about two-part models and transformation?: Comparing methods of modeling Medicare expenditures," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 525-542, May.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Sophia Lazaretou, 2008. "Banking and Central Banking in Pre-WWII Grecce: Money and Currency Developments," Working Papers 86, Bank of Greece.
    2. Stephan Barisitz, 2008. "Banking Transformation (1989 - 2006) in Central and Eastern Europe - With Special Reference to Balkans," Working Papers 78, Bank of Greece.
    3. Peter Bernholz, 2008. "Government Bankruptcy of Balkan Nations and their Consequences for Money and Inflation before 1914: A Comparative Analysis," Working Papers 74, Bank of Greece.
    4. Gemini Mtei & Josephine Borghi & Kara Hanson, 2015. "Predicting Consumption Expenditure for the Analysis of Health Care Financing Equity in Low Income Countries: a Comparison of Approaches," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 124(2), pages 339-355, November.
    5. Milan Sojic & Ljiljana Djurdjevic, 2008. "Monetary Policy Objectives and Istruments used by the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia (1884 - 1914)," Working Papers 87, Bank of Greece.
    6. Alexander Apostolides, 2008. "How Similar to South-Eastern Europe were the Islands of Cyprus and Malta in terms of Agricultural Output and Credit? Evidence during the Interwar Period," Working Papers 80, Bank of Greece.
    7. Zarko Lazarevic, 2008. "Banking Performance in South-Eastern Europe During the Interwar Period," Working Papers 79, Bank of Greece.
    8. Sanjay Mohanty & Rajesh Chauhan & Sumit Mazumdar & Akanksha Srivastava, 2014. "Out-of-pocket Expenditure on Health Care Among Elderly and Non-elderly Households in India," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 115(3), pages 1137-1157, February.
    9. Yuksel Gormez, 2008. "Banking in Turkey: History and Evolution," Working Papers 83, Bank of Greece.
    10. Roumen Avramov & Dragana Gnjatovic, 2008. "Stabilization Policies in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia During Communism's Terminal Years : 1980s Economic Visions in Retrospect," Working Papers 81, Bank of Greece.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Two-part models; generalized linear models; household expenditure; Greece;

    JEL classification:

    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection

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