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Half‐panel jackknife fixed‐effects estimation of linear panels with weakly exogenous regressors

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  • Alexander Chudik
  • M. Hashem Pesaran
  • Jui‐Chung Yang

Abstract

This paper considers estimation and inference in linear panel regression models with lagged dependent variables and/or other weakly exogenous regressors when N (the cross‐section dimension) is large relative to T (the time series dimension). It allows for fixed and time effects (FE‐TE) and derives a general formula for the bias of the FE‐TE estimator which generalizes the well‐known Nickell bias formula derived for the pure autoregressive dynamic panel data models. It shows that in the presence of weakly exogenous regressors inference based on the FE‐TE estimator will result in size distortions unless N/T is sufficiently small. To deal with the bias and size distortion of the FE‐TE estimator the use of a half‐panel jackknife FE‐TE estimator is considered and its asymptotic distribution is derived. It is shown that the bias of the half‐panel jackknife FE‐TE estimator is of order T−2, and for valid inference it is only required that N/T3→0, as N,T→∞ jointly. Extension to unbalanced panel data models is also provided. The theoretical results are illustrated with Monte Carlo evidence. It is shown that the FE‐TE estimator can suffer from large size distortions when N>T, with the half‐panel jackknife FE‐TE estimator showing little size distortions. The use of half‐panel jackknife FE‐TE estimator is illustrated with two empirical applications from the literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexander Chudik & M. Hashem Pesaran & Jui‐Chung Yang, 2018. "Half‐panel jackknife fixed‐effects estimation of linear panels with weakly exogenous regressors," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(6), pages 816-836, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:japmet:v:33:y:2018:i:6:p:816-836
    DOI: 10.1002/jae.2623
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    4. Mayer, Alexander, 2022. "On the local power of some tests of strict exogeneity in linear fixed effects models," Econometrics and Statistics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 49-74.
    5. Shuowen Chen & Victor Chernozhukov & Iván Fernández-Val, 2019. "Mastering Panel Metrics: Causal Impact of Democracy on Growth," AEA Papers and Proceedings, American Economic Association, vol. 109, pages 77-82, May.
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    8. Rabe, Collin & Waddle, Andrea, 2020. "The evolution of purchasing power parity," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 109(C).
    9. Wojciech Charemza & Svetlana Makarova & Krzysztof Rybiński, 2023. "Anti-pandemic restrictions, uncertainty and sentiment in seven countries," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 56(1), pages 1-27, February.
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    11. Chihwa Kao & Long Liu & Rui Sun, 2021. "A bias-corrected fixed effects estimator in the dynamic panel data model," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(1), pages 205-225, January.

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