Bias Correction in the Dynamic Panel Data Model with a Nonscalar Disturbance Covariance Matrix
Approximation formulae are developed for the bias of ordinary and generalized Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) estimators in dynamic panel data models. Results from Kiviet [Kiviet, J. F. (1995), on bias, inconsistency, and efficiency of various estimators in dynamic panel data models, J. Econometrics 68:53-78; Kiviet, J. F. (1999), Expectations of expansions for estimators in a dynamic panel data model: some results for weakly exogenous regressors, In: Hsiao, C., Lahiri, K., Lee, L-F., Pesaran, M. H., eds., Analysis of Panels and Limited Dependent Variables , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 199-225] are extended to higher-order dynamic panel data models with general covariance structure. The focus is on estimation of both short- and long-run coefficients. The results show that proper modelling of the disturbance covariance structure is indispensable. The bias approximations are used to construct bias corrected estimators which are then applied to quarterly data from 14 European Union countries. Money demand functions for M 1, M 2 and M 3 are estimated for the EU area as a whole for the period 1991: I-1995: IV. Significant spillovers between countries are found reflecting the dependence of domestic money demand on foreign developments. The empirical results show that in general plausible long-run effects are obtained by the bias corrected estimators. Moreover, finite sample bias, although of moderate magnitude, is present underlining the importance of more refined estimation techniques. Also the efficiency gains by exploiting the heteroscedasticity and cross-correlation patterns between countries are sometimes considerable.
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Volume (Year): 22 (2003)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
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- Kiviet, Jan F. & Phillips, Garry D. A. & Schipp, Bernhard, 1995. "The bias of OLS, GLS, and ZEF estimators in dynamic seemingly unrelated regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 241-266, September.
- Kajal Lahiri, 2005. "Analysis of Panel Data," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(4), pages 1093-1095.
- den Butter, F. A. G. & Fase, M. M. G., 1981. "The demand for money in EEC countries," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 201-230.
- Pesaran, M. H. & Zhao, Z., 1998. "Bias Reduction in Estimating Long-run Relationships from Dynamic Heterogenous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9802, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Carlo C. A. Winder & Martin M. G. Fase, 1998. "Wealth and the demand for money in the European union," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 507-524.
- Kiviet, Jan F. & Phillips, Garry D. A., 1994. "Bias assessment and reduction in linear error-correction models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 215-243, July.
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