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Explaining Observed Licensing Agreements: Toward a Broader Understanding of Technology Flows

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  • Albert Link
  • John Scott

Abstract

A lack of quantitative information on cross-firm licensing agreements constrains policy makers in their overall understanding of the innovation process and the innovative environment of firms. This paper develops a methodology for understanding the patterns of technology flows that result through licensing agreements from readily available patent data. In addition, hypotheses about firms that share technology through licensing are tested; in particular, we find that diversified firms have a higher probability of licensing their technology.

Suggested Citation

  • Albert Link & John Scott, 2002. "Explaining Observed Licensing Agreements: Toward a Broader Understanding of Technology Flows," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 211-231.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ecinnt:v:11:y:2002:i:3:p:211-231
    DOI: 10.1080/10438590210905
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hagedoorn, John & Link, Albert N. & Vonortas, Nicholas S., 2000. "Research partnerships1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 567-586, April.
    2. Link, Albert N. & Scott, John T., 2001. "Public/private partnerships: stimulating competition in a dynamic market," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 763-794, April.
    3. Jaffe, Adam B, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
    4. Scott, John T & Pascoe, George, 1987. "Purposive Diversification of R and D in Manufacturing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(2), pages 193-205, December.
    5. Donald S. Siegel, 1999. "Skill-Biased Technological Change: Evidence from a Firm-Level Survey," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number sbtc, November.
    6. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters,in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Scott,John T., 2005. "Purposive Diversification and Economic Performance," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521022583, April.
    8. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Interindustry Technology Flows and Productivity Growth: A Reexamination," NBER Chapters,in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 241-250 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Donald Siegel, 1997. "The Impact Of Computers On Manufacturing Productivity Growth: A Multiple-Indicators, Multiple-Causes Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(1), pages 68-78, February.
    10. Bronwyn H. Hall & Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2003. "Universities as Research Partners," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 485-491, May.
    11. Geroski, P A, 1991. "Innovation and the Sectoral," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1438-1451, November.
    12. Arora, Ashish, 1997. "Patents, licensing, and market structure in the chemical industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 391-403, December.
    13. Link, Albert N & Long, James E, 1981. "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research: A Test of Nelson's Diversification Hypothesis," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(1), pages 105-109, September.
    14. Scherer, F M, 1982. "Inter-Industry Technology Flows and Productivity Growth," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(4), pages 627-634, November.
    15. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-596, September.
    16. Scherer, F. M., 1982. "Inter-industry technology flows in the United States," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 227-245, August.
    17. Link, Albert N. & Zmud, Robert W., 1987. "External sources of technical knowledge," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 295-299.
    18. Teece, David J., 1980. "Economies of scope and the scope of the enterprise," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 223-247, September.
    19. Donald Siegel, 1998. "The Impact Of Technological Change On Employment: Evidence From A Firm-Level Survey Of Long Island Manufacturers," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(2-4), pages 227-246.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Manish Srivastava & Tang Wang, 2015. "When does selling make you wiser? Impact of licensing on Chinese firms’ patenting propensity," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 602-628, August.
    2. Lichtenthaler, Ulrich, 2010. "Determinants of proactive and reactive technology licensing: A contingency perspective," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 55-66, February.
    3. TAKECHI Kazutaka, 2008. "International Strategic Alliances for Local Market Entry: Direct Launches versus Marketing Alliances in Pharmaceuticals," Discussion papers 08022, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    4. Link, Albert N. & Scott, John T., 2011. "The Theory and Practice of Public-Sector R&D Economic Impact Analysis: The Case of the National Institute of Standards and Technology," UNCG Economics Working Papers 11-16, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    5. Dirk Czarnitzki & Kornelius Kraft, 2010. "Which Firms Buy Licenses? Market Positions and License Expenditures," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 112(3), pages 471-488, September.
    6. John T. Scott, 2016. "Creativity for invention insights: corporate strategies and opportunities for public entrepreneurship," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 43(4), pages 409-448, December.
    7. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Kraft, Kornelius, 2005. "License Expenditures of Incumbents and Potential Entrants: An Empirical Analysis of Firm Behavior," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-35, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Innovation And Invention: O31; Intellectual Property Rights: O34;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital

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