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Evidence on the glass ceiling effect in France using matched worker-firm data


  • Mohamed Jellal
  • Christophe Nordman
  • Francois-Charles Wolff


In this article, we investigate the relevance of the glass ceiling hypothesis in France, according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution. Using a matched worker-firm data set of about 1 30 000 employees and 14 000 employers, we estimate quantile regressions and rely on a principal component analysis to summarize information specific to the firms. Our different results show that accounting for firm-related characteristics reduces the gender earnings gap at the top of the distribution, but the latter still remains much higher at the top than at the bottom. Furthermore, a quantile decomposition shows that the gender wage gap is mainly due to differences in the returns to observed characteristics rather than in differences in characteristics between men and women.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohamed Jellal & Christophe Nordman & Francois-Charles Wolff, 2008. "Evidence on the glass ceiling effect in France using matched worker-firm data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(24), pages 3233-3250.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:40:y:2008:i:24:p:3233-3250
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840600994070

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:dau:papers:123456789/12203 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Christophe J. NORDMAN & François-Charles WOLFF, 2012. "On-The-Job Learning And Earnings: Comparative Evidence From Morocco And Senegal," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 35, pages 151-176.
    3. Yeonu Lee, 2017. "Women Workforce in the Korean Context," International Review of Management and Marketing, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 403-412.
    4. Christophe J. Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2009. "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Morocco? Evidence from Matched Worker--Firm Data," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 18(4), pages 592-633, August.
    5. Nordman, Christophe J. & Pasquier-Doumer, Laure, 2015. "Transitions in a West African labour market: The role of family networks," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 74-85.
    6. Arda Aktas & Gokce Uysal, 2011. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Turkey Using the Wage Structure Survey," Working Papers 005, Bahcesehir University, Betam, revised Mar 2012.
    7. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4344 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Christophe Nordman & Laure Pasquier-Doumer, 2013. "Transitions in a West African Labour Market: The Role of Social Networks," Working Papers DT/2013/12, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    9. Christophe Nordman & Julia Vaillant, 2017. "Inputs, Gender Roles or Sharing Norms? Assessing the Gender Performance Gap Among Informal Entrepreneurs in Madagascar," Working Papers hal-01618238, HAL.
    10. Christophe Nordman & Julia Vaillant, 2013. "Inputs, Gender Roles or Sharing Norms? Assessing the Gender Performance Gap Among Informal Entrepreneurs in Madagascar," Working Papers DT/2013/15, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    11. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5948 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Nordman, Christophe Jalil & Sarr, Leopold & Sharma, Smriti, 2015. "Cognitive, Non-Cognitive Skills and Gender Wage Gaps: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data in Bangladesh," IZA Discussion Papers 9132, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Christophe J. Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2009. "Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms," Working Papers hal-00421227, HAL.
    14. Bocquier, Philippe & Nordman, Christophe J. & Vescovo, Aude, 2010. "Employment Vulnerability and Earnings in Urban West Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 1297-1314, September.
    15. repec:dau:papers:123456789/12204 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4333 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Kaya, Ezgi, 2017. "Quantile regression and the gender wage gap: Is there a glass ceiling in the Turkish labor market?," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2017/5, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    18. repec:dau:papers:123456789/11236 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Christophe Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2007. "On-the-job learning and earnings in Benin, Morocco and Senegal," Working Papers DT/2007/09, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    20. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4294 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination


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