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Is there a glass ceiling in Morocco? Evidence from matched worker-firm data

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  • Christophe Nordman

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • François-Charles Wolff

    (LEN, Université de Nantes, CNAV, INED)

Abstract

(english) According to the glass ceiling hypothesis evidenced in developed countries, there exist larger gender pay gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution. In this paper, we investigate the relevance of a glass ceiling effect in Morocco using a matched worker-firm data set of more than 8000 employees and 850 employers. We estimate linear and quantile earnings regressions which account for firm heterogeneity and perform a quantile decomposition. We also focus on the within-firm gender earnings gap using information on the firms’ characteristics. Our results show that the gender earnings gap is higher at the top of the distribution than at the bottom in Morocco. The gender gap widens in the upper tail of the earnings distribution when controlling for firm specific components. The glass ceiling effect is also reinforced over time in Morocco as high wage male workers benefit from higher earnings growth than women. _________________________________ (français) Selon l’hypothèse du plafond de verre mise en évidence dans les pays développés, il existe un écart salarial selon le genre plus important en haut de la distribution des salaires. Dans cet article, nous examinons la pertinence de l’existence d’un plafond de verre dans le cas marocain à partir de données appariées employeurs-employés regroupant plus de 8 000 travailleurs répartis dans 850 entreprises manufacturières. Nous estimons des équations de gains linéaires et par quantiles conditionnels prenant en compte l’hétérogénéité des entreprises et nous proposons une décomposition des gains par quantiles. Nous examinons également les déterminants de l’écart de revenus selon le genre intraentreprise en utilisant l’information sur les caractéristiques des établissements. Nos résultats montrent que l’écart de revenus selon le sexe est plus élevé en haut de la distribution des gains qu’en bas de celle-ci. L’écart de gains se creuse en haut de la distribution lorsque sont contrôlées les caractéristiques spécifiques des entreprises. L’effet de plafond de verre pourrait également se renforcer au cours du temps dans ces entreprises marocaines dans la mesure où les hommes à hauts salaires bénéficient d’une croissance des gains plus élevée que leurs homologues féminins.

Suggested Citation

  • Christophe Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2007. "Is there a glass ceiling in Morocco? Evidence from matched worker-firm data," Working Papers DT/2007/04, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200704
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    Cited by:

    1. Richard U. Agesa & Jacqueline Agesa & Andrew Dabalen, 2013. "Sources of the Persistent Gender Wage Gap along the Unconditional Earnings Distribution: Findings from Kenya," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(1), pages 76-103, March.
    2. Christophe J. NORDMAN & François-Charles WOLFF, 2012. "On-The-Job Learning And Earnings: Comparative Evidence From Morocco And Senegal," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 35, pages 151-176.
    3. Christophe Muller & Christophe J. Nordman, 2014. "Task organization, human capital, and wages in Moroccan exporting firms," Middle East Development Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 175-198, July.
    4. Christophe J. Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2009. "Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms," Working Papers hal-00421227, HAL.
    5. Izak Atiyas, 2011. "Firm Level Data in The ERF Region: Research Questions, Data Requirements and Possibilities," Working Papers 589, Economic Research Forum, revised 06 Jan 2011.
    6. Hilger, Anne & Nordman, Christophe Jalil & Sarr, Leopold, 2018. "Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills, Hiring Channels, and Wages in Bangladesh," IZA Discussion Papers 11578, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Smriti Sharma & Christophe Nordman, 2018. "Pecuniary returns to working conditions in Vietnam," WIDER Working Paper Series 72, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    8. Christophe Nordman & Leopold R. Sarr & Smriti Sharma, 2015. "Cognitive, Non-Cognitive Skills and Gender Wage Gaps: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data in Bangladesh," Working Papers DT/2015/19, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    9. Armand Totouom & Vincent De Paul Mboutchouang & Hervé Kaffo Fotio, 2018. "The Effects of Education on Labour Force Participation in Cameroon: A Gender Perspective," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 30(1), pages 45-55, March.
    10. Mohsen Javdani, 2015. "Glass ceilings or glass doors? The role of firms in male‐female wage disparities," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 48(2), pages 529-560, May.
    11. Sylvie Huet & Floriana Gargiulo & Felicia Pratto, 2020. "Can gender inequality be created without inter-group discrimination?," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 15(8), pages 1-25, August.
    12. Nordman, Christophe J. & Robilliard, Anne-Sophie & Roubaud, François, 2011. "Gender and ethnic earnings gaps in seven West African cities," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 132-145.
    13. Christophe Nordman & Julia Vaillant, 2013. "Inputs, Gender Roles or Sharing Norms? Assessing the Gender Performance Gap Among Informal Entrepreneurs in Madagascar," Working Papers DT/2013/15, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    14. Deguilhem, Thibaud & Berrou, Jean-Philippe & Combarnous, François, 2017. "Using your ties to get a worse job? The differential effects of social networks on quality of employment: Evidence from Colombia," MPRA Paper 78628, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Zheng Fang & Chris Sakellariou, 2015. "Glass Ceilings versus Sticky Floors: Evidence from Southeast Asia and an International Update," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 29(3), pages 215-242, September.
    16. KUEPIE Mathias & DZOSSA Anaclet Désiré & KELODJOUE Samuel, 2013. "Determinants of labor market gender inequalities in Cameroon, Senegal and Mali: the role of human capital and the fertility burden," LISER Working Paper Series 2013-08, LISER.
    17. Izak Atiyas, 2011. "Firm-Level Data In The Mena Region: Research Questions, Data Requirements And Possibilities," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 3(02), pages 159-190.
    18. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5948 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Christophe J. Nordman & Smriti Sharma, 2018. "Pecuniary returns to working conditions in Vietnam," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2018-72, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    20. Etoundi Atenga, Eric Martial & Chameni Nembua, Célestin & Meva Avoulou, Henri Joel, 2013. "Ecarts de salaire entre hommes et femmes au Cameroun : Discrimination ou Capital humain ? Une approche par sous groupes [Gender wage gap : Discrimination or Human Capital? A subgroup approach]," MPRA Paper 64761, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Aug 2014.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender wage gap; glass ceiling; quantile regressions; matched worker-firm data; Écart de revenus selon le genre; plafond de verre; régressions de quantile; données appariées employeurs-employés; Maroc.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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