Market Forces and Sex Discrimination
We report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces reduce or eliminate discrimination, based on plant- and firm-level data on profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and workforce sex composition. Our strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those employing more women are more profitable, consistent with sex discrimination in the short run when plants have product market power. We do not find that these discriminatory employers are punished over time through lower growth, or are bought out by nondiscriminators.
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- Kenneth R. Troske, 1999.
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- Kenneth R. Troske, 1998. "Evidence on the Employer Size-Wage Premium From Worker-Establishment Matched Data," Labor and Demography 9807001, EconWPA.
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- Joni Hersch, 1991. "Equal Employment Opportunity Law and Firm Profitability," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(1), pages 139-153.
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- Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M. R. A. Engel & John C. Haltiwanger, 1995. "Plant-Level Adjustment and Aggregate Investment Dynamics," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 1-54.
- David Neumark, 1988.
"Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Matthew S. Goldberg, 1982. "Discrimination, Nepotism, and Long-Run Wage Differentials," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 97(2), pages 307-319.
- Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162, December.
- Lazear, Edward P, 1979. "Why Is There Mandatory Retirement?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1261-84, December.
- Hellerstein, Judith K & Neumark, David & Troske, Kenneth R, 1999.
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Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(3), pages 409-46, July.
- Judith K. Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth R. Troske, 1996. "Wages, Productivity, and Worker Characteristics: Evidence from Plant-Level Production Functions and Wage Equations," NBER Working Papers 5626, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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