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Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain: Glass Floors versus Glass Ceilings

Author

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  • Dolado, Juan J.
  • Llorens, Vanesa

Abstract

This Paper analyses the gender wage gaps by education throughout the wage distribution in Spain. Quantile regressions are used to estimate the wage returns to the different characteristics at the more relevant percentiles. A correction for the selection bias is included for the group of less educated women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is then implemented at each quantile in order to estimate the component of the gender gap not explained by differences in characteristics. Our main findings are two-fold. On the one hand, when dealing with the group with tertiary education, we find higher discrimination at the top than at the bottom of the distribution, in accordance with the conventional ‘glass ceiling’ hypothesis. On the other, for the group with primary and secondary education, the converse result holds, pointing out to the existence of lower wages for women at the bottom of the distribution due to their prospects of lower job stability, a phenomenon that we refer to as ‘glass floors’.

Suggested Citation

  • Dolado, Juan J. & Llorens, Vanesa, 2004. "Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain: Glass Floors versus Glass Ceilings," CEPR Discussion Papers 4203, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:4203
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Cristiano Perugini & Ekaterina Selezneva, 2015. "Labour market institutions, crisis and gender earnings gap in Eastern Europe," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 23(3), pages 517-564, July.
    2. Coral del Río Otero & Carlos Gradín Lago & Olga Cantó Sánchez, 2004. "El enfoque distributivo en el análisis de la discriminación salarial por razón de género," Working Papers 0405, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
    3. Albrecht, James & van Vuuren, Aico & Vroman, Susan, 2004. "Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap in the Netherlands with Sample Selection Adjustments," IZA Discussion Papers 1400, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. de la Rica, Sara & Dolado, Juan J. & Llorens, Vanesa, 2005. "Ceiling and Floors: Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 1483, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Paulo Santos Monteiro, 2007. "Family Labor Supply, Precautionary Behavior, Aggregate Saving and Employment," 2007 Meeting Papers 180, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    6. Yolanda Pena-Boquete, 2006. "A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Gender Wage Discrimination: Spain Versus Galicia," ERSA conference papers ersa06p340, European Regional Science Association.
    7. Dueñas, Diego & Iglesias, Carlos & Llorente, Raquel, 2014. "Do services reduce gender inequality in labor markets? The service sector, knnowledge-intensive services and the gender pay gap," MPRA Paper 61628, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Juan Canal-Domínguez & César Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, 2008. "Analysis of wage differences between native and immigrant workers in Spain," Spanish Economic Review, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 10(2), pages 109-134, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender gap; glass ceilings; glass floors; quantile regressions;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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