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Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap in the Netherlands with Sample Selection Adjustments

Author

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  • Albrecht, James

    () (Georgetown University)

  • van Vuuren, Aico

    () (University of Gothenburg)

  • Vroman, Susan

    () (Georgetown University)

Abstract

In this paper, we use quantile regression decomposition methods to analyze the gender gap between men and women who work full time in the Netherlands. Because the fraction of women working full time in the Netherlands is quite low, sample selection is a serious issue. In addition to shedding light on the sources of the gender gap in the Netherlands, we make two methodological contributions. First, we prove that the Machado-Mata quantile regression decomposition procedure yields consistent and asymptotically normal estimates of the quantiles of the counterfactual distribution that it is designed to simulate. Second, we show how the technique can be extended to account for selection. We find that there is a positive selection of women into full-time work in the Netherlands; i.e., women who get the greatest return to working full time do work full time. We find that about two thirds of this selection is due to observables such as education and experience with the remainder due to unobservables. Our decompositions show that the majority of the gender log wage gap is due to differences between men and women in returns to labor market characteristics rather than to differences in the characteristics. This is true across the wage distribution, particularly in the top half of the distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • Albrecht, James & van Vuuren, Aico & Vroman, Susan, 2004. "Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap in the Netherlands with Sample Selection Adjustments," IZA Discussion Papers 1400, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1400
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Yekaterina Chzhen & Karen Mumford, "undated". "Gender Gaps Across the Earnings Distribution in Britain: Are Women Bossy Enough?," Discussion Papers 09/27, Department of Economics, University of York.
    2. Thomas Grandner & Dieter Gstach, 2012. "Decomposing wage discrimination in Germany and Austria with counterfactual densities," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp145, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
    3. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2008. "Unequal Pay or Unequal Employment? A Cross-Country Analysis of Gender Gaps," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(4), pages 621-654, October.
    4. Olivier Bargain & Prudence Kwenda, 2014. "The Informal Sector Wage Gap: New Evidence Using Quantile Estimations on Panel Data," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(1), pages 117-153.
    5. Coral Río & Carlos Gradín & Olga Cantó, 2011. "The measurement of gender wage discrimination: the distributional approach revisited," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 9(1), pages 57-86, March.
    6. Dragana Djurdjevic & Sergiy Radyakin, 2007. "Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: An Application for Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 143(IV), pages 365-396, December.
    7. Kaya, Ezgi, 2017. "Quantile regression and the gender wage gap: Is there a glass ceiling in the Turkish labor market?," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2017/5, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    8. Olivier Bargain & Prudence Kwenda, 2010. "Is informality bad? Evidence from Brazil, Mexico and South Africa," Working Papers 201003, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    9. Anna Ruzik & Magdalena Rokicka, 2010. "The Gender Pay Gap in Informal Employment in Poland," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 406, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
    10. Sara Rica & Juan Dolado & Vanesa Llorens, 2008. "Ceilings or floors? Gender wage gaps by education in Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 21(3), pages 777-778, July.
    11. Marjan Petreski & Nikica Blazevski & Blagica Petreski, 2014. "Gender Wage Gap when Women are Highly Inactive: Evidence from Repeated Imputations with Macedonian Data," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 393-411, December.
    12. Florentino Felgueroso & María J. Pérez-Villadóniga & Juan Prieto-Rodriguez, 2008. "The Effect Of The Collective Bargaining Level On The Gender Wage Gap: Evidence From Spain," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 76(3), pages 301-319, June.
    13. de la Rica, Sara & Dolado, Juan J. & Llorens, Vanesa, 2005. "Ceiling and Floors: Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 1483, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Florentino Felgueroso & Juan Prieto Rodríguez & María José Pérez-Villadóniga, 2007. "Collective Bargaining and the GenderWage Gap: A Quantile Regression Approach," Working Papers 2007-06, FEDEA.
    15. Tindara Addabbo & Donata Favaro & Stefano Magrini, 2012. "Gender differences in productivity rewards: the role of human capital," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 59(1), pages 81-110, March.
    16. Martina Mysíková, 2012. "Gender Wage Gap in the Czech Republic and Central European Countries," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2012(3), pages 328-346.
    17. Wolf Dieter Heinbach & Markus Spindler, 2007. "To Bind or Not to Bind Collectively? Decomposition of Bargained Wage Differences Using Counterfactual Distributions," IAW Discussion Papers 36, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
    18. Heinze, Anja, 2010. "Beyond the mean gender wage gap: Decomposition of differences in wage distributions using quantile regression," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-043, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    19. Konstantopoulos, Spyros & Constant, Amelie F., 2005. "The Gender Gap Reloaded: Is School Quality Linked to Labor Market Performance?," IZA Discussion Papers 1830, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    20. Tindara Addabbo & Donata Favaro & Stefano Magrini, 2010. "Gender differences in productivity rewards in Italy: the role of human capital," Working Papers 2010_11, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".

    More about this item

    Keywords

    quantile regression; selection; gender;

    JEL classification:

    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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