IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Labour Market Institutions, Crisis and Gender Earnings Gap in Eastern Europe

  • Cristiano Perugini


    (Department of Economics, Finance and Statistics, University of Perugia)

  • Ekaterina Selezneva

This paper studies gender earnings inequality in ten Central and Eastern EU countries before (2007) and during the ongoing crisis (2009), using quantile regression methods. The analysis reveals remarkable cross-country diversity in levels and patterns of the gender gap along the earning distribution. We address then the role played by country-specific labour market institutions in forming this variety. Labour market deregulation increases gender inequality, particularly reinforcing the glass-ceiling effect. Higher union density and wage coordination reduce the pay gap, with stronger equalizing effects again in the better-paid jobs. Lastly, the crisis seems to further weaken the already poor role of institutions in the low-pay sector.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and South-East European Studies) in its series Working Papers with number 328.

in new window

Length: 42
Date of creation: Mar 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ost:wpaper:328
Contact details of provider: Postal: Landshuter Str. 4, 93047 Regensburg
Phone: +49-(0)941-943 54 10
Fax: +49-(0)941-943 54 27
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Email:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Mitali Das & Whitney K. Newey & Francis Vella, 2003. "Nonparametric Estimation of Sample Selection Models," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 33-58.
  2. John DiNardo & Nicole M. Fortin & Thomas Lemieux, 1995. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," NBER Working Papers 5093, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Lawrence M. Kahn, 2006. "The Impact of Employment Protection Mandates on Demographic Temporary Employment Patterns: International Microeconomic Evidence," Working Papers 886, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  4. Michele Belot & Jan Boone & Jan Van Ours, 2007. "Welfare-Improving Employment Protection," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 74(295), pages 381-396, 08.
  5. Bertola, Giuseppe & Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence, 2002. "Labour Market Institutions and Demographic Employment Patterns," CEPR Discussion Papers 3448, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2001. "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," NBER Working Papers 8200, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Nicodemo, Catia, 2009. "Gender Pay Gap and Quantile Regression in European Families," IZA Discussion Papers 3978, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Klein, Roger W & Spady, Richard H, 1993. "An Efficient Semiparametric Estimator for Binary Response Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(2), pages 387-421, March.
  9. Newell, Andrew T. & Reilly, Barry, 2001. "The Gender Pay Gap in the Transition from Communism: Some Empirical Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 268, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Sara Rica & Juan Dolado & Vanesa Llorens, 2008. "Ceilings or floors? Gender wage gaps by education in Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 777-778, July.
  11. Dolado, Juan J. & Llorens, Vanesa, 2004. "Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain: Glass Floors versus Glass Ceilings," CEPR Discussion Papers 4203, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Daniele Checchi & Claudio Lucifora, 2002. "Unions and labour market institutions in Europe," Departmental Working Papers 2002-16, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
  13. Anja Heinze & Elke Wolf, 2010. "The intra-firm gender wage gap: a new view on wage differentials based on linked employer–employee data," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 851-879, June.
  14. Harmgart, Heike & Jurajda, Stepan, 2004. "When do 'Female' Occupations Pay More?," CEPR Discussion Papers 4270, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Bosio, Giulio, 2009. "Temporary employment and wage gap with permanent jobs: evidence from quantile regression," MPRA Paper 16055, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  16. Tito Boeri & Pietro Garibaldi, 2007. "Two Tier Reforms of Employment Protection: A Honeymoon Effect?," Carlo Alberto Notebooks 37, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
  17. Renaud Bourlès & Gilbert Cette & Jimmy Lopez & Jacques Mairesse & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2013. "Do Product Market Regulations In Upstream Sectors Curb Productivity Growth? Panel Data Evidence For OECD Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(5), pages 1750-1768, December.
  18. Martina Mysíková, 2012. "Gender Wage Gap in the Czech Republic and Central European Countries," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2012(3), pages 328-346.
  19. Elizabeth Brainerd, 2000. "Women in transition: Changes in gender wage differentials in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(1), pages 138-162, October.
  20. Bob Gregory, 1999. "Labour Market Institutions and the Gender Pay Ratio," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 32(3), pages 273-278.
  21. Orazem, Peter & Vodopivec, Milan, 2000. "Male-Female Differences in Labor Market Outcomes During the Early Transition to Market: The Cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Staff General Research Papers 1889, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  22. Urban Sila, 2012. "Greater Wage Inequality Reduces Average Hours of Work," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 79(316), pages 680-702, October.
  23. Jens Holscher & Cristiano Perugini & Fabrizio Pompei, 2011. "Wage inequality, labour market flexibility and duality in Eastern and Western Europe," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 271-310.
  24. Marco Leonardi & Giovanni Pica, 2010. "Who Pays for it? The Heterogeneous Wage Effects of Employment Protection Legislation," CSEF Working Papers 265, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 13 May 2012.
  25. Kamila Fialová & Ondrej Schneider, 2008. "Labour Market Institutions and their Effect on Labour Market Performance in the New EU Member Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 2421, CESifo Group Munich.
  26. Lixin Cai & Amy Y.C. Liu, 2008. "Union Wage Effects in Australia: Is There Variation along the Distribution?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 84(267), pages 496-510, December.
  27. Viitanen, Tarja, 2007. "Informal and Formal Care in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 2648, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  28. Winfried Koeniger & Marco Leonardi & Luca Nunziata, 2007. "Labor Market Institutions and Wage Inequality," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(3), pages 340-356, April.
  29. Stěpán Jurajda, 2005. "Gender Segregation and Wage Gap: An East-West Comparison," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 598-607, 04/05.
  30. Jacob Mincer, 1958. "Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 281.
  31. H. Lehmann & A. Muravyev, 2010. "Labor market institutions and labor market performance: what can we learn from transition countries?," Working Papers 714, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  32. Christofides, Louis N. & Polycarpou, Alexandros & Vrachimis, Konstantinos, 2010. "The Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' of the European Union," IZA Discussion Papers 5044, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  33. Francesco Pastore & Alina Verashchagina, 2011. "When does transition increase the gender wage gap?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 19(2), pages 333-369, 04.
  34. Christian Dustmann & Johannes Ludsteck & Uta Schönberg, 2009. "Revisiting the German Wage Structure," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 124(2), pages 843-881.
  35. Moshe Buchinsky, 1998. "Recent Advances in Quantile Regression Models: A Practical Guideline for Empirical Research," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 88-126.
  36. David Card, 1992. "The Effect of Unions on the Distribution of Wages: Redistribution or Relabelling?," NBER Working Papers 4195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  37. Daniele Checchi & Cecilia García-Peñalosa, 2008. "Labour market institutions and income inequality," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 23, pages 601-649, October.
  38. Sara Rica & Juan Dolado & Vanesa Llorens, 2008. "Ceilings or floors? Gender wage gaps by education in Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 751-776, July.
  39. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  40. Danielle Venn, 2009. "Legislation, Collective Bargaining and Enforcement: Updating the OECD Employment Protection Indicators," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 89, OECD Publishing.
  41. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162.
  42. Manning, Alan & Petrongolo, Barbara, 2007. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain," CEPR Discussion Papers 6058, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  43. Sandrine Cazes & Alena Nesporova, 2004. "Labour markets in transition: balancing flexibility and security in Central and Eastern Europe," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 91(5), pages 23-54.
  44. Jean-Marc Falter, 2007. "Self-employment and earning inequality," Journal of Income Distribution, Journal of Income Distribution, vol. 16(2), pages 106-127, June.
  45. Jurajda, Stepan, 2003. "Gender wage gap and segregation in enterprises and the public sector in late transition countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 199-222, June.
  46. Earle, John S. & Sakova, Zuzana, 2000. "Business start-ups or disguised unemployment? Evidence on the character of self-employment from transition economies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 575-601, September.
  47. Richard B. Freeman & Lawrence F. Katz, 1995. "Differences and Changes in Wage Structures," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number free95-1, December.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ost:wpaper:328. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekaterina Selezneva)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.