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Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia

Author

Listed:
  • Milan Vodopivec

    (GEA College of Entrepreneurship, Dunajska 156, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia)

  • Peter F. Orazem

    () (Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070, USA)

Abstract

Changes in women's relative wages and employment are analyzed, using social security data from Slovenia (1987-1992) and a retrospective labor force survey in Estonia (1989-1994). Estonia adopted liberal labor market policies. Slovenia took an interventionist approach. Nevertheless, relative wages for women rose in both countries. Factors favoring women included: returns to human capital rose in transition, benefiting women; relative labor demand shifted toward predominantly female sectors; low-wage women had a disproportionate incentive to exit the labor market, especially in Estonia. However, women were less mobile across jobs in both countries, so men disproportionately filled new jobs in expanding sectors.

Suggested Citation

  • Milan Vodopivec & Peter F. Orazem, 2000. "Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 283-303.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:13:y:2000:i:2:p:283-303 Note: Received: 27 November 1997/Accepted: 20 December 1998
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Orazem, Peter F & Vodopivec, Milan, 1995. "Winners and Losers in Transition: Returns to Education, Experience, and Gender in Slovenia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 9(2), pages 201-230, May.
    2. Haltiwanger, John C. & Vodopivec, Milan, 2002. "Gross worker and job flows in a transition economy: an analysis of Estonia," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 601-630, November.
    3. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1992. "The Gender Earnings Gap: Learning from International Comparisons," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 533-538.
    4. Stefan Bojnec & Jozef Konings, 1998. "Job Creation, Job Destruction and Labour Demand in Slovenia," LICOS Discussion Papers 7498, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    5. Schultz, Theodore W, 1975. "The Value of the Ability to Deal with Disequilibria," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, pages 827-846.
    6. Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-442, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Employment; earnings; transition; labor policy; gender;

    JEL classification:

    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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