Inputs, Gender Roles or Sharing Norms? Assessing the Gender Performance Gap Among Informal Entrepreneurs in Madagascar
We use a representative sample of informal entrepreneurs in Madagascar to add new evidence on the magnitude of the gender performance gap. After controlling for business and entrepreneur characteristics, female-owned businesses exhibit a value added 28 percent lower than their male counterparts. Correcting for endogenous selection into informal self-employment raises the gap by 5 percentage points. We then investigate the role of sharing norms and gender-differentiated allocation of time within the household in the gender performance gap, by estimating their effect on the technical inefficiency of female and male entrepreneurs. Only male entrepreneurs seem subject to pressure to redistribute from the distant network. Our findings are consistent with situations where women working at home would essentially feel negatively the burden of their own community due to intense social norms and obligations in their workplace but also of domestic chores and responsibilities. We find evidence of females self-selecting themselves into industries in which they can combine market-oriented and domestic activities.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2014|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Meeusen, Wim & van den Broeck, Julien, 1977. "Efficiency Estimation from Cobb-Douglas Production Functions with Composed Error," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 18(2), pages 435-444, June.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/4304 is not listed on IDEAS
- Margherita Comola & Marcel Fafchamps, 2010.
"Are gifts and loans between households voluntary?,"
CSAE Working Paper Series
2010-20, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Albrecht, James & Björklund, Anders & Vroman, Susan, 2001.
"Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
282, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Måns Söderbom & Francis Teal, 2004.
"Size and Efficiency in African Manufacturing Firms:Evidence from Firm-Level Panel Data,"
Development and Comp Systems
- Soderbom, Mans & Teal, Francis, 2004. "Size and efficiency in African manufacturing firms: evidence from firm-level panel data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 369-394, February.
- Måns Söderbom & Francis Teal, 2002. "Size and efficiency in African manufacturing firms: Evidence from firm-level panel data," CSAE Working Paper Series 2002-07, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Aterido, Reyes & Beck, Thorsten & Iacovone, Leonardo, 2011. "Gender and finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : are women disadvantaged ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5571, The World Bank.
- Bollinger, Christopher R. & Ziliak, James P. & Troske, Kenneth, 2009.
"Down from the Mountain: Skill Upgrading and Wages in Appalachia,"
IZA Discussion Papers
4249, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Christopher Bollinger & James P. Ziliak & Kenneth R. Troske, 2011. "Down from the Mountain: Skill Upgrading and Wages in Appalachia," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(4), pages 819-857.
- Jellal, Mohamed & Nordman, Christophe & wolff, François charles, 2008.
"Evidence on the glass ceiling effect in France using matched worker-firm data,"
38590, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mohamed Jellal & Christophe Nordman & Francois-Charles Wolff, 2008. "Evidence on the glass ceiling effect in France using matched worker-firm data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(24), pages 3233-3250.
- Pasquier-Doumer, Laure, 2011.
"Intergenerational transmission of self-employed status in the informal sector: a constrained choice or better income prospects? Evidence from seven West-African countries,"
Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011
64, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
- Laure Pasquier-Doumer, 2013. "Intergenerational Transmission of Self-Employed Status in the Informal Sector: A Constrained Choice or Better Income Prospects? Evidence from Seven West African Countries," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 22(1), pages 73-111, January.
- Laure Pasquier-Doumer, 2011. "Intergenerational transmission of self-employed status in the informal sector: a constrained choice or better income prospects? Evidence from seven West-African countries," Working Papers DT/2011/09, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/10627 is not listed on IDEAS
- Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-512, March.
- Moshe Buchinsky, 2001. "Quantile regression with sample selection: Estimating women's return to education in the U.S," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 87-113.
- Mead, Donald C. & Liedholm, Carl, 1998. "The dynamics of micro and small enterprises in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 61-74, January.
- Wollni, Meike & Brümmer, Bernhard, 2012. "Productive efficiency of specialty and conventional coffee farmers in Costa Rica: Accounting for technological heterogeneity and self-selection," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 67-76.
- Kevane, Michael & Wydick, Bruce, 2001. "Microenterprise Lending to Female Entrepreneurs: Sacrificing Economic Growth for Poverty Alleviation?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1225-1236, July.
- Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-918, October.
- François Bourguignon & Martin Fournier & Marc Gurgand, 2004.
"Selection Bias Corrections Based on the Multinomial Logit Model: Monte-Carlo Comparisons,"
DELTA Working Papers
2004-20, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- François Bourguignon & Martin Fournier & Marc Gurgand, 2007. "Selection Bias Corrections Based On The Multinomial Logit Model: Monte Carlo Comparisons," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(1), pages 174-205, 02.
- François Bourguignon & Marc Gurgand & Martin Fournier, 2007. "Selection bias corrections based on the multinomial logit model: Monte Carlo comparisons," Post-Print halshs-00201372, HAL.
- Shoshana Neuman & Ronald Oaxaca, 2004. "Wage Decompositions with Selectivity-Corrected Wage Equations: A Methodological Note," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 2(1), pages 3-10, April.
- Aguirregabiria, Victor, 2009. "Econometric Issues and Methods in the Estimation of Production Functions," MPRA Paper 15973, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- David Neumark, 1988.
"Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- William Greene, 2010.
"A stochastic frontier model with correction for sample selection,"
Journal of Productivity Analysis,
Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 15-24, August.
- William Greene, 2008. "A Stochastic Frontier Model with Correction for Sample Selection," Working Papers 08-9, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Elena Bardasi & Shwetlena Sabarwal & Katherine Terrell, 2011. "How do female entrepreneurs perform? Evidence from three developing regions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 417-441, November.
- Julia Vaillant & Michael Grimm & Jann Lay & François Roubaud, 2014.
"Informal sector dynamics in times of fragile growth: The case of Madagascar,"
The European Journal of Development Research,
Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 26(4), pages 437-455, September.
- Michael Grimm & Jann Lay & François Roubaud & Julia Vaillant, 2011. "Informal Sector Dynamics In Times Of Fragile Growth: The Case Of Madagascar," Working Papers DT/2011/10, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
- Christophe J. Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2007. "Is There A Glass Ceiling in Morocco? Evidence from Matched Worker-Firm Data," Working Papers 0720, Economic Research Forum, revised Dec 2007.
- Fafchamps, Marcel & McKenzie, David & Quinn, Simon & Woodruff, Christopher, 2014. "Microenterprise growth and the flypaper effect: Evidence from a randomized experiment in Ghana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 211-226.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/13755 is not listed on IDEAS
- Nichter, Simeon & Goldmark, Lara, 2009. "Small Firm Growth in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1453-1464, September.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/4318 is not listed on IDEAS
- repec:oxf:wpaper:csae-wps/2010-20 is not listed on IDEAS
- Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/7080 is not listed on IDEAS
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp8046. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.