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Breaking the metal ceiling: Female entrepreneurs who succeed in male-dominated sectors

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  • Francisco Campos
  • Markus Goldstein
  • Laura McGorman
  • Ana Maria Munoz Boudet
  • Obert Pimhidzai

Abstract

Occupational segregation significantly contributes to the earnings gender gap worldwide. We look at differences in outcomes for male and female enterprises and their sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region of high female participation in entrepreneurship. Data on Uganda show that women breaking into male-dominated sectors make as much as men, and three times more than women staying in female-dominated sectors. Factors including entrepreneurial skill/abilities and credit/human capital constraints do not explain women’s sectoral choices. However, information about profitability, male role models’ influence, and exposure to the sector from family and friends are critical in helping women circumvent or overcome norms undergirding occupational segregation.

Suggested Citation

  • Francisco Campos & Markus Goldstein & Laura McGorman & Ana Maria Munoz Boudet & Obert Pimhidzai, 2017. "Breaking the metal ceiling: Female entrepreneurs who succeed in male-dominated sectors," WIDER Working Paper Series 166, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  • Handle: RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2017-166
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    1. Suresh de Mel & David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2009. "Are Women More Credit Constrained? Experimental Evidence on Gender and Microenterprise Returns," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(3), pages 1-32, July.
    2. Elena Bardasi & Shwetlena Sabarwal & Katherine Terrell, 2011. "How do female entrepreneurs perform? Evidence from three developing regions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 417-441, November.
    3. Maria Minniti, 2010. "Female Entrepreneurship and Economic Activity," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 22(3), pages 294-312, July.
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    7. Rijkers, Bob & Costa, Rita, 2012. "Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(12), pages 2411-2426.
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    9. Kevane, Michael & Wydick, Bruce, 2001. "Microenterprise Lending to Female Entrepreneurs: Sacrificing Economic Growth for Poverty Alleviation?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1225-1236, July.
    10. Paula Kantor, 2005. "Determinants Of Women'S Microenterprise Success In Ahmedabad, India: Empowerment And Economics," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 63-83.
    11. Mead, Donald C. & Liedholm, Carl, 1998. "The dynamics of micro and small enterprises in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 61-74, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mario Macis, 2017. "Gender differences in wages and leadership," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 323-323, January.
    2. repec:bla:gender:v:24:y:2017:i:6:p:610-627 is not listed on IDEAS

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