Barriers to entry and returns to capital in informal activities : evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa
This paper investigates the patterns of capital entry barriers and capital returns in informal Micro and Small Enterprises (MSE's) using a unique micro data set seven West-African countries. The author's findings support the view of a heterogeneous informal sector that is not primarily host to subsistence activities. While an assessment of initial investment identifies some informal activities with negligible entry barriers, a notable cost of entry is associated to most activities. The authors find very heterogeneous patterns of capital returns in informal MSE's. At very low levels of capital, marginal returns are extremely high- often exceeding 70 percent per month. Above a capital stock of 150 international dollars, marginal returns are found to be relatively low at around 4 to 7 percent monthly. The authors provide some evidence that the high returns at low capital stocks reflect high risks. At the same time, most MSE's appear to be severely capital constrained.
|Date of creation:||01 May 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cunningham, Wendy V & Maloney, William F, 2001.
"Heterogeneity among Mexico's Microenterprises: An Application of Factor and Cluster Analysis,"
Economic Development and Cultural Change,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 50(1), pages 131-56, October.
- Cunningham, Wendy V. & Maloney, William F., 1998. "Heterogeneity among Mexico's micro-enterprises - an application of factor and cluster analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1999, The World Bank.
- Abhijit V. Banerjee & Andrew F. Newman, 1990.
"Occupational Choice and the Process of Development,"
911, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-98, April.
- Tybout, James R, 1983. "Credit Rationing and Investment Behavior in a Developing Country," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 598-607, November.
- Galor, Oded & Zeira, Joseph, 1988.
"Income Distribution and Macroeconomics,"
51644, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Sep 1989.
- Christopher Udry & Santosh Anagol, 2006.
"The Return to Capital in Ghana,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 388-393, May.
- de Mel, Suresh & McKenzie, David & Woodruff, Christopher, 2007.
"Returns to Capital in Microenterprises: Evidence from a Field Experiment,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2934, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Suresh de Mel & David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2008. "Returns to Capital in Microenterprises: Evidence from a Field Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 123(4), pages 1329-1372, November.
- de Mel, Suresh & McKenzie, David & Woodruff, Christopher, 2007. "Returns to capital in microenterprises : evidence from a field experiment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4230, The World Bank.
- Dan Bernhardt & Huw Lloyd-Ellis, 1993.
"Enterprise, Inequality and Economic Development,"
893, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Arne Bigsten & Paul Collier & Stefan Dercon & Marcel Fafchamps & Bernard Gauthier & Jan Willem Gunning & Abena Oduro & Remco Oostendorp & Cathy Patillo & M�ns S–derbom & Francis Teal & Albert Zeufack, 2003.
"Credit Constraints in Manufacturing Enterprises in Africa,"
Journal of African Economies,
Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 12(1), pages 104-125, March.
- Paul Collier & Stefan Dercon & Marcel Fafchamps, 2000. "Credit Constraints in Manufacturing Enterprises in Africa," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2000-24, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Arne Bigsten & Paul Collier & Stefan Dercon & Marcel Fafchamps & Bernard Gauthier & Jan Willem Gunning & Måns Söderbom & Abena Oduro & Remco Oostendorp & Cathy Pattillo & Francis Teal & Albert Zeufack, 2000. "Credit constraints in manufacturing enterprises in Africa," CSAE Working Paper Series 2000-24, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Henley, Andrew & Arabsheibani, G. Reza & Carneiro, Francisco G., 2006.
"On defining and measuring the informal sector,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3866, The World Bank.
- Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick, 1997. "A Theory of Trickle-Down Growth and Development," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(2), pages 151-72, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:77927. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Raiden C. Dillard)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.