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Géographie, croissance et politique de cohésion en Europe

  • Stéphane Riou

[fre] L'expérience européenne de la convergence fait apparaître que le rattrapage de certains pays périphériques s'opère par un creusement de leurs disparités régionales (Espagne et Portugal). Globalement, la concentration spatiale des activités économiques semble être bénéfique à leur croissance. Tout se passe donc comme s'il existait une certaine tension entre cohésion et croissance. Deux questions se posent alors. Quels sont les mécanismes économiques à l'origine d'une telle tension ? L'intervention publique est-elle capable de la dissoudre et de rechercher à la fois plus de cohésion inter-régionale et d'efficacité macro-économique ? L'objet de cet article est de montrer que le croisement récent de l'économie géographique et de la croissance endogène apporte un éclairage théorique intéressant sur ces deux questions. En particulier, cette littérature montre bien que la déconcentration des interactions technologiques est une condition première au développement régional équilibré et, à ce titre, devrait prendre une place importante dans les choix de politiques régionales notamment européennes. [eng] The convergence process of some european cohesion countries seems to hide more regional inequalities within each of them (Spain and Portugal). Their growth rate would benefit from more agglomeration of economic activities. Such fact illustrates a possible dilemma between cohesion and national growth. Then, two questions may be put. First, what are the economic mechanisms at the origin of such dilemma ? Is public support able to make disappear this dilemma, seeking both less regional inequalities and more macroecono- mic efficiency ? This paper shows that the recent literature using both economic geography and endogenous growth frameworks gives some interesting theoretical answers to these questions. Precisely, this literature shows how less concentrated technological interactions may be important to promote more balanced regional development. This conclusion should be more taken into account in the public policy choices.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 17 (2003)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 171-220

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2003_num_17_3_1470
Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2003.1470
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/rfeco

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