IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/pid/journl/v54y2015i3p245-272.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Shocks as a Source of Vulnerability: An Empirical Investigation from Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Rashida Haq

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to investigate the incidence of different types of shocks in rural Pakistan and identify the household characteristics that are associated with this phenomenon. It is observed that one-third of households experience an adverse shock, be it natural/agricultural, economic, social or relating to health. The natural/agricultural shocks have major share in the total burden of shocks while the households‘ coping mechanism is overwhelmingly informal and largely asset-based. The poorest of the households adopt behaviour-based strategies like reducing food consumption, employ child labour, work more hours etc. Overall, households of with less educated heads, high dependency ratio, large household size, low welfare ratio, farm household, ownership of land and residing in south Punjab or Sindh are more vulnerable to suffer shocks, particularly of income. Vulnerability in terms of a decline in consumption is observed for households who are hit by natural/agricultural or health shocks. For all these reasons, a gradual shift from traditional emergency relief measures towards ex-ante actions to reduce and mitigate hazard impacts should be encouraged along with non- exploitative credit and more effective safety nets.

Suggested Citation

  • Rashida Haq, 2015. "Shocks as a Source of Vulnerability: An Empirical Investigation from Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(3), pages 245-272.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:54:y:2015:i:3:p:245-272
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/2015/Volume3/245-272.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Grant Jacobsen, 2009. "Health and Death Risk and Income Decisions: Evidence from Microfinance," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(6), pages 934-946.
    2. Takashi Kurosaki, 2006. "Consumption vulnerability to risk in rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(1), pages 70-89.
    3. Ethan Ligon & Laura Schechter, 2003. "Measuring Vulnerability," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(486), pages 95-102, March.
    4. Rasmus Heltberg & Niels Lund, 2009. "Shocks, Coping, and Outcomes for Pakistan's Poor: Health Risks Predominate," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(6), pages 889-910.
    5. Foster, Andrew D, 1995. "Prices, Credit Markets and Child Growth in Low-Income Rural Areas," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(430), pages 551-570, May.
    6. Hanan G. Jacoby & Emmanuel Skoufias, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 311-335.
    7. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2010. "Vulnerability, risk management and agricultural development," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 5(1), September.
    8. Kurosaki, Takashi, 2013. "Vulnerability of Household Consumption to Floods and Droughts in Developing Countries: Evidence from Pakistan," CEI Working Paper Series 2012-10, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    9. Kurosaki, Takashi & Fafchamps, Marcel, 2002. "Insurance market efficiency and crop choices in Pakistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 419-453, April.
    10. Bob Baulch & John Hoddinott, 2000. "Economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 1-24.
    11. Paxson, Christina H, 1992. "Using Weather Variability to Estimate the Response of Savings to Transitory Income in Thailand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 15-33, March.
    12. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2010. "Vulnerability, risk management and agricultural development," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 5(1), September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Shocks; Vulnerability; Poverty;

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:54:y:2015:i:3:p:245-272. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.