IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/wdevel/v38y2010i4p647-663.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Vulnerability of Victims of Civil Conflicts: Empirical Evidence for the Displaced Population in Colombia

Author

Listed:
  • Ibáñez, Ana María
  • Moya, Andrés

Abstract

Summary Internal conflicts and the forced displacement often caused by such conflicts impose a heavy burden on the civilian population and greatly damage a community's overall welfare. The present study employs a household-level survey administered to 2,322 Colombian displaced households to estimate changes in household welfare after displacement and to assess aggregate consumption levels in destination sites. We also assess whether households are able to smooth consumption, and we analyze the strategies they are compelled to adopt in order to cope. Our results indicate that victims of civil conflict face difficulties in generating income, are unable to rely on usual risk-sharing mechanisms, and are forced to draw upon costly coping strategies in order to smooth consumption. The vulnerability of displaced households, and the possibility of falling into poverty traps, highlight the need to design and implement specific policies for victims of internal conflict in order to cope with the displacement shock.

Suggested Citation

  • Ibáñez, Ana María & Moya, Andrés, 2010. "Vulnerability of Victims of Civil Conflicts: Empirical Evidence for the Displaced Population in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 647-663, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:38:y:2010:i:4:p:647-663
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305-750X(09)00206-X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Harold Alderman & John Hoddinott & Bill Kinsey, 2006. "Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 450-474, July.
    2. Tilman Brück, 2003. "Coping Strategies in Post-War Rural Mozambique," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 384, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 2001. "Behavioral responses to risk in rural China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 23-49, October.
    4. Townsend, Robert M, 1994. "Risk and Insurance in Village India," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(3), pages 539-591, May.
    5. Morduch, Jonathan, 1994. "Poverty and Vulnerability," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 221-225, May.
    6. Fafchamps, Marcel & Udry, Christopher & Czukas, Katherine, 1998. "Drought and saving in West Africa: are livestock a buffer stock?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 273-305, April.
    7. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1993. "Credit Market Constraints, Consumption Smoothing, and the Accumulation of Durable Production Assets in Low-Income Countries: Investment in Bullocks in India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 223-244, April.
    8. Kohara, Miki & Horioka, Charles Yuji, 2006. "Do borrowing constraints matter? An analysis of why the permanent income hypothesis does not apply in Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 358-377, December.
    9. Martin Ravallion & Shubham Chaudhuri, 1997. "Risk and Insurance in Village India: Comment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(1), pages 171-184, January.
    10. Morduch, Jonathan, 2002. "Consumption Smoothing Across Space: Testing Theories of Risk-Sharing in the ICRISAT Study Region of South India," WIDER Working Paper Series 055, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    11. Foster, Andrew D, 1995. "Prices, Credit Markets and Child Growth in Low-Income Rural Areas," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(430), pages 551-570, May.
    12. Hanan G. Jacoby & Emmanuel Skoufias, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 311-335.
    13. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Stark, Oded, 1989. "Consumption Smoothing, Migration, and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 905-926, August.
    14. Andrew D. Foster & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2001. "Imperfect Commitment, Altruism, And The Family: Evidence From Transfer Behavior In Low-Income Rural Areas," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(3), pages 389-407, August.
    15. Gaviria, Alejandro, 2000. "Increasing returns and the evolution of violent crime: the case of Colombia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 1-25, February.
    16. Paxson, Christina H, 1992. "Using Weather Variability to Estimate the Response of Savings to Transitory Income in Thailand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 15-33, March.
    17. Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp, 2013. "Poverty Dynamics, Violent Conflict, and Convergence in R wanda," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 59(1), pages 66-90, March.
    18. Tilman Brück, 2004. "The Welfare Effects of Farm Household Activity Choices in Post-War Mozambique," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 413, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    19. Donovan, Cynthia & Bailey, Linda & Mpyisi, Edson & Weber, Michael T., 2003. "Prime-Age Adult Morbidity and Mortality in Rural Rwanda: Effects on Household Income, Agricultural Production, and Food Security Strategies," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 55387, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    20. Robert Jensen, 2000. "Agricultural Volatility and Investments in Children," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 399-404, May.
    21. Jonathan Morduch, 1995. "Income Smoothing and Consumption Smoothing," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 103-114, Summer.
    22. Tom Bundervoet & Philip Verwimp, 2005. "Civil War and Economic Sanctions: Analysis of Anthropometric Outcomes in Burundi," HiCN Working Papers 11, Households in Conflict Network.
    23. Fafchamps, Marcel & Gubert, Flore, 2007. "The formation of risk sharing networks," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 326-350, July.
    24. Ana María Ibañez & Andrés Moya, 2010. "Do Conflicts Create Poverty Traps? Asset Losses and Recovery for Displaced Households in Colombia," NBER Chapters,in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 137-172 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    25. Behrman, Jere R, 1988. "Intrahousehold Allocation of Nutrients in Rural India: Are Boys Favored? Do Parents Exhibit Inequality Aversion?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(1), pages 32-54, March.
    26. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4392 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Conflicts and Economic Development
      by Dany Jaimovich - Bakary Baludin in Development Therapy on 2013-03-04 20:32:00
    2. A socio-economic characterization of returnee households in the Nuba Mountains
      by Dany Jaimovich - Bakary Baludin in Development Therapy on 2013-03-15 21:32:00

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:deveco:v:131:y:2018:i:c:p:15-27 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. José Fernández & Matteo Pazzona, 2015. "Evaluating the Spillover Effects of the Plan Colombia in Ecuador," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 15/667, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
    3. repec:tse:wpaper:27881 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Hopfensitz, Astrid & Miquel-Florensa, Josepa, 2014. "How forced displacement flows affect public good contributions: The social consequences of conflict in Colombia," TSE Working Papers 14-463, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Jun 2015.
    5. Wang, Shun & Zhou, Weina, 2017. "The Unintended Long-Term Consequences of Mao’s Mass Send-Down Movement: Marriage, Social Network, and Happiness," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 344-359.
    6. Carlos Bozzoli & Tilman Brueck & Tony Muhumuza, 2016. "Activity Choices Of Internally Displaced Persons And Returnees: Quantitative Survey Evidence From Post-War Northern Uganda," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(4), pages 329-347, October.
    7. Wharton, Kate & Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth, 2011. "Conflict and its Impact on Educational Accumulation and Enrollment in Colombia: What We Can Learn from Recent IDPs," IZA Discussion Papers 5939, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Manuel Fernández & Ana María Ibáñez & Ximena Peña, 2014. "Adjusting the Labour Supply to Mitigate Violent Shocks: Evidence from Rural Colombia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(8), pages 1135-1155, August.
    9. Karen del Mar Ortiz Becerra, 2014. "Forced Displacement and Early Childhood Nutritional Development in Colombia," HiCN Working Papers 180, Households in Conflict Network.
    10. Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere & Kate Wharton, 2013. "The Impact of Conflict on Education Attainment and Enrollment in Colombia: lessons from recent IDPs," HiCN Working Papers 141, Households in Conflict Network.
    11. Mariana Blanco & Juan F. Vargas, 2010. "Empowering IDPs with SMS: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Bogota," Research Department Publications 4704, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    12. Ana María Ibá-ez, 2014. "Growth in forced displacement: cross-country, sub-national and household evidence on potential determinants," Chapters,in: International Handbook on Migration and Economic Development, chapter 13, pages 350-387 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Andrés Moya & Michael Carter, 2014. "Violence and the Formation of Hopelessness and Pessimistic Prospects of Upward Mobility in Colombia," NBER Working Papers 20463, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Moya, A., 2012. "Violence, Emotional Distress and Induced Changes in Risk Aversion among the Displaced Population in Colombia," Working papers 105, Rimisp Latin American Center for Rural Development.
    15. Blanco Mariana & Vargas Juan F., 2014. "Can SMS Technology Improve Low Take-up of Social Benefits?," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 20(1), pages 61-81, January.
    16. Loschmann, Craig & Parsons, Christopher R. & Siegel, Melissa, 2015. "Does Shelter Assistance Reduce Poverty in Afghanistan?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 305-322.
    17. Daniel Zaga, 2014. "Masked Development: Exploring the Hidden Benefits of the Zapatista Conflict," CFD Working Papers 08-2015, Centre for Finance and Development, The Graduate Institute.
    18. repec:col:000089:012224 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Valentina Calderón & Margarita Gáfaro & Ana María Ibáñez, 2011. "Forced Migration, Female Labor Force Participation, and Intra-household Bargaining: Does Conflict EmpowerWomen?," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 008912, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
    20. Ivlevs, Artjoms & Veliziotis, Michail, 2017. "Beyond Conflict: Long-Term Labour Market Integration of Internally Displaced Persons in Post-Socialist Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 11215, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    21. O’Reilly, Colin, 2015. "Household Recovery from Internal Displacement in Northern Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 203-215.
    22. Asha Abdel Rahim & Dany Jaimovich & Aleksi Ylönen, 2013. "Forced displacement and behavioral change: An empirical study of returnee households in the Nuba Mountains," HiCN Working Papers 157, Households in Conflict Network.
    23. Isabelle Joumard & Juliana Londoño Vélez, 2013. "Income Inequality and Poverty in Colombia - Part 1. The Role of the Labour Market," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1036, OECD Publishing.
    24. Achyuta Adhvaryu & James Fenske, 2014. "Conflict and the Formation of Political Beliefs in Africa," HiCN Working Papers 164, Households in Conflict Network.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:38:y:2010:i:4:p:647-663. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.