Income Smoothing and Consumption Smoothing
One way that risk-averse households protect consumption levels is to borrow and use insurance mechanisms. Another way, common in low-income economies, is to diversify economic activities and make conservative production and employment choices. Households thus tend toward limiting exposure only to shocks that can be handled with available credit and insurance. Typically, both types of mechanisms are studied independently but much more can be learned by studying them together. First, we obtain a more complete picture of risks, costs, and insurance possibilities. Second, it opens the way to considering biases in standard tests of credit and insurance.
Volume (Year): 9 (1995)
Issue (Month): 3 (Summer)
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Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(416), pages 56-78, January.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Binswanger, Hans P., 1992. "Wealth, weather risk, and the composition and profitability of agricultural investments," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1055, The World Bank.
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- Edgardo Moscardi & Alain de Janvry, 1977. "Attitudes Toward Risk Among Peasants: An Econometric Approach," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 59(4), pages 710-716.
- Feldstein, Martin S, 1974. "Social Security, Induced Retirement, and Aggregate Capital Accumulation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(5), pages 905-926, Sept./Oct.
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