IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/intfin/v57y2018icp17-43.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Diversification and bank stability in the GCC

Author

Listed:
  • Abuzayed, Bana
  • Al-Fayoumi, Nedal
  • Molyneux, Phil

Abstract

This study examines bank diversification strategies and links to financial sector stability. Using a sample of listed and unlisted banks operating in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries over 2001 to 2014 we investigate the diversification features of conventional and Islamic banks. Our main finding overall is that income or asset diversification does not enhance bank stability. However, there is evidence of a non-linear relationship between non-interest (non-financing) income and stability indicating that banks are able to reduce risk at higher levels of diversification. Conventional banks appear to be more adversely impacted on the risk side than Islamic banks. We also find that factors such as improved institutional quality, macroeconomic conditions, and other bank-specific factors motivate greater stability.

Suggested Citation

  • Abuzayed, Bana & Al-Fayoumi, Nedal & Molyneux, Phil, 2018. "Diversification and bank stability in the GCC," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 17-43.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intfin:v:57:y:2018:i:c:p:17-43
    DOI: 10.1016/j.intfin.2018.04.005
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1042443117305255
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Elyas Elyasiani & Yong Wang, 2012. "Bank holding company diversification and production efficiency," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(17), pages 1409-1428, September.
    2. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2007. "Is there a diversification discount in financial conglomerates?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 331-367, August.
    3. Fiordelisi, Franco & Marques-Ibanez, David & Molyneux, Phil, 2011. "Efficiency and risk in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1315-1326, May.
    4. repec:eee:jimfin:v:81:y:2018:i:c:p:203-220 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Barry Williams & Laurie Prather, 2010. "Bank risk and return: the impact of bank non-interest income," International Journal of Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 6(3), pages 220-244, June.
    6. Pejman Abedifar & Philip Molyneux & Amine Tarazi, 2013. "Risk in Islamic Banking," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 17(6), pages 2035-2096.
    7. Gheeraert, Laurent & Weill, Laurent, 2015. "Does Islamic banking development favor macroeconomic efficiency? Evidence on the Islamic finance-growth nexus," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 32-39.
    8. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    9. repec:eee:finsta:v:34:y:2018:i:c:p:12-43 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Pasiouras, Fotios, 2008. "Estimating the technical and scale efficiency of Greek commercial banks: The impact of credit risk, off-balance sheet activities, and international operations," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 301-318, September.
    11. Evelyn Hayden & Daniel Porath & Natalja Westernhagen, 2007. "Does Diversification Improve the Performance of German Banks? Evidence from Individual Bank Loan Portfolios," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 32(3), pages 123-140, December.
    12. Maudos, Joaquín, 2017. "Income structure, profitability and risk in the European banking sector: The impact of the crisis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PA), pages 85-101.
    13. Hansen, Bruce E., 1999. "Threshold effects in non-dynamic panels: Estimation, testing, and inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 345-368, December.
    14. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    15. Gropp, Reint & Vesala, Jukka & Vulpes, Giuseppe, 2006. "Equity and Bond Market Signals as Leading Indicators of Bank Fragility," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(2), pages 399-428, March.
    16. Altman, Edward I. & Saunders, Anthony, 1997. "Credit risk measurement: Developments over the last 20 years," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(11-12), pages 1721-1742, December.
    17. Martin Čihák & Heiko Hesse, 2010. "Islamic Banks and Financial Stability: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 38(2), pages 95-113, December.
    18. Rihab Grassa, 2012. "Islamic banks' income structure and risk: evidence from GCC countries," Accounting Research Journal, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 25(3), pages 227-241, November.
    19. Abdelaziz Chazi & Lateef A.M. Syed, 2010. "Risk exposure during the global financial crisis: the case of Islamic banks," International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 3(4), pages 321-333, November.
    20. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-470, May.
    21. Lepetit, Laetitia & Strobel, Frank, 2013. "Bank insolvency risk and time-varying Z-score measures," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 73-87.
    22. Robert G. King & Ross Levine, 1993. "Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-737.
    23. Baele, Lieven & De Jonghe, Olivier & Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2007. "Does the stock market value bank diversification?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1999-2023, July.
    24. Altunbas, Yener & Binici, Mahir & Gambacorta, Leonardo, 2018. "Macroprudential policy and bank risk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 203-220.
    25. Mark Carlson, 2004. "Are Branch Banks Better Survivors? Evidence from the Depression Era," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 42(1), pages 111-126, January.
    26. Tim Callen & Reda Cherif & Fuad Hasanov & Amgad Hegazy & Padamja Khandelwal, 2014. "Economic Diversification in the GCC; Past, Present, and Future," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 14/12, International Monetary Fund.
    27. Stiroh, Kevin J. & Rumble, Adrienne, 2006. "The dark side of diversification: The case of US financial holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 2131-2161, August.
    28. Alqahtani, Faisal & Mayes, David G. & Brown, Kym, 2016. "Economic turmoil and Islamic banking: Evidence from the Gulf Cooperation Council," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 44-56.
    29. Agarwal, Vineet & Taffler, Richard, 2008. "Comparing the performance of market-based and accounting-based bankruptcy prediction models," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1541-1551, August.
    30. Froot, Kenneth A. & Stein, Jeremy C., 1998. "Risk management, capital budgeting, and capital structure policy for financial institutions: an integrated approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 55-82, January.
    31. Baele, Lieven & Farooq, Moazzam & Ongena, Steven, 2014. "Of religion and redemption: Evidence from default on Islamic loans," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 141-159.
    32. Lepetit, Laetitia & Nys, Emmanuelle & Rous, Philippe & Tarazi, Amine, 2008. "Bank income structure and risk: An empirical analysis of European banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1452-1467, August.
    33. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    34. Jemma Dridi & Maher Hasan, 2010. "The Effects of the Global Crisison Islamic and Conventional Banks; A Comparative Study," IMF Working Papers 10/201, International Monetary Fund.
    35. Goddard, John & McKillop, Donal & Wilson, John O.S., 2008. "The diversification and financial performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1836-1849, September.
    36. Sarath Delpachitra & Laurence Lester, 2013. "Non-Interest Income: Are Australian Banks Moving Away from their Traditional Businesses?," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 32(2), pages 190-199, June.
    37. Berger, Allen N. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Zhou, Mingming, 2010. "The effects of focus versus diversification on bank performance: Evidence from Chinese banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1417-1435, July.
    38. De Vries, C.G., 2005. "The simple economics of bank fragility," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 803-825, April.
    39. Pejman Abedifar & Shahid M. Ebrahim & Philip Molyneux & Amine Tarazi, 2015. "Islamic Banking And Finance: Recent Empirical Literature And Directions For Future Research," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 637-670, September.
    40. Reint Gropp & Jukka M. Vesala & Giuseppe Vulpes, 2004. "Market indicators, bank fragility, and indirect market discipline," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sep, pages 53-62.
    41. Wassim RAJHI & Slim A. HASSAIRI, 2013. "Islamic Banks And Financial Stability: A Comparative Empirical Analysis Between Mena And Southeast Asian Countries," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 37, pages 149-177.
    42. Elsas, Ralf & Hackethal, Andreas & Holzhäuser, Markus, 2010. "The anatomy of bank diversification," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1274-1287, June.
    43. Boyd, John H. & Prescott, Edward C., 1986. "Financial intermediary-coalitions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 211-232, April.
    44. Meslier, Céline & Tacneng, Ruth & Tarazi, Amine, 2014. "Is bank income diversification beneficial? Evidence from an emerging economy," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 97-126.
    45. Kaufmann, Daniel & Kraay, Aart & Mastruzzi, Massimo, 2010. "The worldwide governance indicators : methodology and analytical issues," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5430, The World Bank.
    46. Philip Molyneux & John Yip, 2013. "Income diversification and performance of Islamic banks," Journal of Financial Management, Markets and Institutions, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 1, pages 47-66, January.
    47. DeYoung, Robert & Torna, Gökhan, 2013. "Nontraditional banking activities and bank failures during the financial crisis," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 397-421.
    48. John H. Boyd & Stanley L. Graham, 1988. "The profitability and risk effects of allowing bank holding companies to merge with other financial firms: a simulation study," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 3-20.
    49. Vincenzo Chiorazzo & Carlo Milani & Francesca Salvini, 2008. "Income Diversification and Bank Performance: Evidence from Italian Banks," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 33(3), pages 181-203, June.
    50. Saghi-Zedek, Nadia, 2016. "Product diversification and bank performance: Does ownership structure matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 154-167.
    51. Bourkhis, Khawla & Nabi, Mahmoud Sami, 2013. "Islamic and conventional banks' soundness during the 2007–2008 financial crisis," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 68-77.
    52. Maria Vassalou & Yuhang Xing, 2004. "Default Risk in Equity Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 831-868, April.
    53. Akhigbe, Aigbe & Stevenson, Bradley A., 2010. "Profit efficiency in U.S. BHCs: Effects of increasing non-traditional revenue sources," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 132-140, May.
    54. Al-Khouri, Ritab & Arouri, Houda, 2016. "The simultaneous estimation of credit growth, valuation, and stability of the Gulf Cooperation Council banking industry," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 499-518.
    55. Martin CIHAK, 2007. "Systemic Loss: A Measure of Financial Stability (in English)," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 57(1-2), pages 5-26, March.
    56. Rose, Peter S, 1989. "Diversification of the Banking Firm," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 24(2), pages 251-280, May.
    57. Law, Siong Hook & Azman-Saini, W.N.W. & Ibrahim, Mansor H., 2013. "Institutional quality thresholds and the finance – Growth nexus," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5373-5381.
    58. Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. " Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-1658, December.
    59. Nadia Saghi-Zedek, 2016. "Product diversification and bank performance: does ownership structure matter?," Post-Print halshs-01342528, HAL.
    60. Khediri, Karim Ben & Charfeddine, Lanouar & Youssef, Slah Ben, 2015. "Islamic versus conventional banks in the GCC countries: A comparative study using classification techniques," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 75-98.
    61. Nguyen, My & Skully, Michael & Perera, Shrimal, 2012. "Market power, revenue diversification and bank stability: Evidence from selected South Asian countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 897-912.
    62. repec:eee:jbfina:v:87:y:2018:i:c:p:411-426 is not listed on IDEAS
    63. Viral V. Acharya & Iftekhar Hasan & Anthony Saunders, 2006. "Should Banks Be Diversified? Evidence from Individual Bank Loan Portfolios," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1355-1412, May.
    64. DeYoung, Robert & Roland, Karin P., 2001. "Product Mix and Earnings Volatility at Commercial Banks: Evidence from a Degree of Total Leverage Model," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 54-84, January.
    65. John H. Boyd & Stanley L. Graham, 1988. "The profitability and risk effects of allowing bank holding companies to merge with other financial firms: a simulation study," Proceedings 213, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    66. Cebenoyan, A. Sinan & Strahan, Philip E., 2004. "Risk management, capital structure and lending at banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 19-43, January.
    67. Aigbe Akhigbe & Jeff Madura & Anna D. Martin, 2007. "Effect Of Fed Policy Actions On The Default Likelihood Of Commercial Banks," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 30(1), pages 147-162.
    68. Saiying Deng & Elyas Elyasiani & Jingyi Jia, 2013. "Institutional Ownership, Diversification, and Riskiness of Bank Holding Companies," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 48(3), pages 385-415, August.
    69. Williams, Barry, 2016. "The impact of non-interest income on bank risk in Australia," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 16-37.
    70. Robert DeYoung & Tara Rice, 2004. "Noninterest Income and Financial Performance at U.S. Commercial Banks," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 101-127, February.
    71. Mare, Davide Salvatore & Moreira, Fernando & Rossi, Roberto, 2017. "Nonstationary Z-Score measures," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 260(1), pages 348-358.
    72. Beck, Thorsten & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Merrouche, Ouarda, 2013. "Islamic vs. conventional banking: Business model, efficiency and stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 433-447.
    73. Sissy, Aisha Mohammed & Amidu, Mohammed & Abor, Joshua Yindenaba, 2017. "The effects of revenue diversification and cross border banking on risk and return of banks in Africa," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-18.
    74. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R., 2002. "Research in emerging markets finance: looking to the future," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 429-448, December.
    75. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    76. Sami Ben Naceur & Barbara Casu & Hichem Ben-Khedhiri, 2011. "What Drives the Performance of Selected MENA Banks? A Meta-Frontier Analysis," IMF Working Papers 11/34, International Monetary Fund.
    77. Wagner, Wolf, 2007. "The liquidity of bank assets and banking stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 121-139, January.
    78. Ritu Basu & Ananthakrishnan Prasad & Sergio L. Rodriguez, 2015. "Monetary Operations and Islamic Banking in the GCC; Challenges and Options," IMF Working Papers 15/234, International Monetary Fund.
    79. Sreedhar T. Bharath & Tyler Shumway, 2008. "Forecasting Default with the Merton Distance to Default Model," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(3), pages 1339-1369, May.
    80. Arnoud W. A. Boot & Lev Ratnovski, 2016. "Banking and Trading," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 20(6), pages 2219-2246.
    81. Steven Drucker & Manju Puri, 2009. "On Loan Sales, Loan Contracting, and Lending Relationships," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(7), pages 2635-2672, July.
    82. Kabir, Md. Nurul & Worthington, Andrew & Gupta, Rakesh, 2015. "Comparative credit risk in Islamic and conventional bank," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 327-353.
    83. Wu, Jyun-Yi & Hsu, Chih-Chiang, 2012. "Foreign direct investment and income inequality: Does the relationship vary with absorptive capacity?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2183-2189.
    84. Lehar, Alfred, 2005. "Measuring systemic risk: A risk management approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 2577-2603, October.
    85. Sarah Sanya & Simon Wolfe, 2011. "Can Banks in Emerging Economies Benefit from Revenue Diversification?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 79-101, October.
    86. Demsetz, Rebecca S & Strahan, Philip E, 1997. "Diversification, Size, and Risk at Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 300-313, August.
    87. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Yang, Shih-Jui & Chang, Chi-Hung, 2014. "Non-interest income, profitability, and risk in banking industry: A cross-country analysis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 48-67.
    88. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsieh, Meng-Fen & Yang, Shih-Jui, 2014. "The relationship between revenue diversification and bank performance: Do financial structures and financial reforms matter?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 18-35.
    89. repec:pal:pmsbfi:978-0-230-50322-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    GCC; Diversification; Stability; Islamic banking;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:intfin:v:57:y:2018:i:c:p:17-43. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/intfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.