IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eco/journ2/2018-03-24.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Investigating the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Egypt: The Role of Renewable Energy and Trade in Mitigating GHGs

Author

Listed:
  • Khadiga Mohamed El-Aasar

    (Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, Egypt,)

  • Shaimaa A. Hanafy

    (Researcher, National Center for Social and Criminological Research, Cairo, Egypt)

Abstract

This paper aims to investigate the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for Egypt during the period 1971-2012. Also, it attempts to examine the potential role of renewable energy and trade in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Egypt. Accordingly, the study examines the dynamic relationship between the GHG emissions, economic growth (real gross domestic product [GDP] per capita), renewable energy consumption (% of total), and trade openness. Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag bounds testing approach, the empirical evidence of the EKC hypothesis is analyzed. The main findings of the analysis, concerning the validity of EKC, reveal that the EKC hypothesis does not exist for GHG emissions in Egypt for both short - and long-term. In addition, the empirical results indicate the potential significant role of renewable energy to reduce GHG emissions. However, it has been found that trade openness has insignificant impact on GHG emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Khadiga Mohamed El-Aasar & Shaimaa A. Hanafy, 2018. "Investigating the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Egypt: The Role of Renewable Energy and Trade in Mitigating GHGs," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 8(3), pages 177-184.
  • Handle: RePEc:eco:journ2:2018-03-24
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econjournals.com/index.php/ijeep/article/download/6316/3713
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.econjournals.com/index.php/ijeep/article/view/6316/3713
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2010. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 3220-3225, December.
    2. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    3. Pao, Hsiao-Tien & Tsai, Chung-Ming, 2010. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in BRIC countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 7850-7860, December.
    4. Pao, Hsiao-Tien & Yu, Hsiao-Cheng & Yang, Yeou-Herng, 2011. "Modeling the CO2 emissions, energy use, and economic growth in Russia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 5094-5100.
    5. Farhani, Sahbi & Chaibi, Anissa & Rault, Christophe, 2014. "CO2 emissions, output, energy consumption, and trade in Tunisia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 426-434.
    6. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1858-1864, June.
    7. Onafowora, Olugbenga A. & Owoye, Oluwole, 2014. "Bounds testing approach to analysis of the environment Kuznets curve hypothesis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 47-62.
    8. Poudel, Biswo N. & Paudel, Krishna P. & Bhattarai, Keshav, 2009. "Searching for an Environmental Kuznets Curve in Carbon Dioxide Pollutant in Latin American Countries," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 41(1), pages 1-15, April.
    9. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
    10. Mehdi Ben Jebli & Slim Ben Youssef & Ilhan Ozturk, 2015. "The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade: Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 27(3), pages 288-300, September.
    11. Al-Mulali, Usama & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2016. "The investigation of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in the advanced economies: The role of energy prices," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1622-1631.
    12. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-582 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Muhammad Shahbaz & Smile Dube & Ilhan Ozturk & Abdul Jalil, 2015. "Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 475-481.
    14. Fodha, Mouez & Zaghdoud, Oussama, 2010. "Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 1150-1156, February.
    15. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    16. Grossman, G.M & Krueger, A.B., 1991. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," Papers 158, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
    17. Gregory C. Chow & Jie Li, 2014. "Environmental Kuznets Curve: Conclusive Econometric Evidence for CO 2," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(1), pages 1-7, February.
    18. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    19. Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi & Ben Youssef, Adel & M'henni, Hatem & Rault, Christophe, 2012. "Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 342-349.
    20. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
    21. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Loganathan, Nanthakumar & Muzaffar, Ahmed Taneem & Ahmed, Khalid & Ali Jabran, Muhammad, 2016. "How urbanization affects CO2 emissions in Malaysia? The application of STIRPAT model," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 83-93.
    22. Dalia M. Ibrahiem, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical analysis for carbon dioxide emissions in Egypt," International Journal of Green Economics, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 10(2), pages 136-150.
    23. Sahbi Farhani & Anissa Chaibi & Christophe Rault, 2014. "A study of CO2 emissions, output,energy consumption, and trade," Working Papers 2014-56, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    24. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "The emissions, energy consumption, and growth nexus: Evidence from the commonwealth of independent states," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 650-655, January.
    25. Esteve, Vicente & Tamarit, Cecilio, 2012. "Threshold cointegration and nonlinear adjustment between CO2 and income: The Environmental Kuznets Curve in Spain, 1857–2007," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 2148-2156.
    26. Mayra Benavides & Kevin Ovalle & Carolina Torres & Tatiana Vinces, 2017. "Economic Growth, Renewable Energy and Methane Emissions: Is there an Enviromental Kuznets Curve in Austria?," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 259-267.
    27. Al-Mulali, Usama & Saboori, Behnaz & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2015. "Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 123-131.
    28. Usama Al-Mulali & Sakiru Solarin & Ilhan Ozturk, 2016. "Investigating the presence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Kenya: an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 80(3), pages 1729-1747, February.
    29. Disli, Mustafa & Ng, Adam & Askari, Hossein, 2016. "Culture, income, and CO2 emission," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 418-428.
    30. Wang, Kuan-Min, 2012. "Modelling the nonlinear relationship between CO2 emissions from oil and economic growth," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1537-1547.
    31. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Shabbir, Muhammad Shahbaz, 2012. "Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis in Pakistan: Cointegration and Granger causality," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 2947-2953.
    32. Alam, M. Shahid, 2006. "Economic Growth with Energy," MPRA Paper 1260, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    33. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    34. Liddle, Brantley, 2001. "Free trade and the environment-development system," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 21-36, October.
    35. Doaa Mohamed Salman Abdou & Eyad Mohammed Atya, 2013. "Investigating the energy-environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from Egypt," International Journal of Green Economics, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 7(2), pages 103-115.
    36. Jayanthakumaran, Kankesu & Verma, Reetu & Liu, Ying, 2012. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, trade and income: A comparative analysis of China and India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 450-460.
    37. Jalil, Abdul & Mahmud, Syed F., 2009. "Environment Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: A cointegration analysis for China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5167-5172, December.
    38. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Adebola Solarin, Solarin & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis and the role of globalization in selected African countries," MPRA Paper 69859, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Mar 2016.
    39. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
    40. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2013. "The long-run and causal analysis of energy, growth, openness and financial development on carbon emissions in Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 262-267.
    41. Dinh Hong Linh & Shih-Mo Lin, 2014. "CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and FDI in Vietnam," Managing Global Transitions, University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper, vol. 12(3 (Fall)), pages 219-232.
    42. Al Mamun, Md. & Sohag, Kazi & Hannan Mia, Md. Abdul & Salah Uddin, Gazi & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2014. "Regional differences in the dynamic linkage between CO2 emissions, sectoral output and economic growth," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 1-11.
    43. Tang, Chor Foon & Tan, Bee Wah & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2016. "Energy consumption and economic growth in Vietnam," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1506-1514.
    44. Shafik, Nemat & Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit, 1992. "Economic growth and environmental quality : time series and cross-country evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 904, The World Bank.
    45. Du, Limin & Wei, Chu & Cai, Shenghua, 2012. "Economic development and carbon dioxide emissions in China: Provincial panel data analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 371-384.
    46. Ertugrul, Hasan Murat & Çetin, Murat & Şeker, Fahri & Dogan, Eyüp, 2015. "The impact of trade openness on global carbon dioxide emissions: Evidence from the top ten emitters among developing countries," MPRA Paper 97539, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Mar 2016.
    47. Saboori, Behnaz & Sulaiman, Jamalludin & Mohd, Saidatulakmal, 2012. "Economic growth and CO2 emissions in Malaysia: A cointegration analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 184-191.
    48. Wojciech W. Charemza & Derek F. Deadman, 1997. "New Directions In Econometric Practice, Second Edition," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1139.
    49. Kanjilal, Kakali & Ghosh, Sajal, 2013. "Environmental Kuznet’s curve for India: Evidence from tests for cointegration with unknown structuralbreaks," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 509-515.
    50. Zambrano-Monserrate, Manuel A. & Silva-Zambrano, Carlos A. & Davalos-Penafiel, Jose L. & Zambrano-Monserrate, Andrea & Ruano, Maria Alejandra, 2018. "Testing environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Peru: The role of renewable electricity, petroleum and dry natural gas," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 82(P3), pages 4170-4178.
    51. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-056 is not listed on IDEAS
    52. Acaravci, Ali & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "On the relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Europe," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 5412-5420.
    53. repec:ipg:wpaper:201415 is not listed on IDEAS
    54. Hamit-Haggar, Mahamat, 2012. "Greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth: A panel cointegration analysis from Canadian industrial sector perspective," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 358-364.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Alexander Bass & Dmitry Burakov & Max Freidin, 2019. "Does Financial Development Matter for Environmental Kuznets Curve in Russia? Evidence from the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Test Approach," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(4), pages 334-341.
    2. Pham Ngoc-Tham & Pham Trung-Kien & Cao Viet Hieu & Tran Ha Giang & Vo Xuan Vinh, 2020. "The Impact of International Trade on Environmental Quality: Implications for Law," Asian Journal of Law and Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-12, April.
    3. Emrah Bese & Salih Kalayci, 2019. "Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: Evidence from Egypt, Kenya and Turkey," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(6), pages 479-491.
    4. Moataz Elshimy & Khadiga M. El-Aasar, 2020. "Carbon footprint, renewable energy, non-renewable energy, and livestock: testing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for the Arab world," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 22(7), pages 6985-7012, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Renewable Energy; Egypt;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eco:journ2:2018-03-24. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ilhan Ozturk). General contact details of provider: http://www.econjournals.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.