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Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in Middle East and North African Countries

  • Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi


    (EDHEC Business School)

  • Ben Youssef, Adel


    (University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis)

  • M'henni, Hatem


    (University of Manouba)

  • Rault, Christophe


    (University of Orléans)

This article extends the recent findings of Liu (2005), Ang (2007), Apergis et al. (2009) and Payne (2010) by implementing recent bootstrap panel unit root tests and cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real GDP for 12 Middle East and North African Countries (MENA) over the period 1981–2005. Our results show that in the long-run energy consumption has a positive significant impact on CO2 emissions. More interestingly, we show that real GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. However, although the estimated long-run coefficients of income and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in most studied countries, the turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. Thus, our findings suggest that not all MENA countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease their emission levels as they may achieve CO2 emissions reduction via energy conservation without negative long-run effects on economic growth.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6412.

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Length: 20 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2012
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Energy Policy, 2012, 45, 342 - 349
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6412
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  16. Doukas, Haris & Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D. & Kagiannas, Argyris G. & Psarras, John, 2006. "Renewable energy sources and rationale use of energy development in the countries of GCC: Myth or reality?," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 755-770.
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