IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Threshold cointegration and nonlinear adjustment between CO2 and income: The Environmental Kuznets Curve in Spain, 1857–2007

  • Esteve, Vicente
  • Tamarit, Cecilio

In this paper we model the long-run relationship between per capita CO2 and per capita income for the Spanish economy over the period 1857–2007. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (ECK) the relationship between the two variables has an inverted-U shape. However, previous studies for the Spanish economy only considered the existence of linear relationships. Such an approach may lack flexibility to detect the true shape of the relationship. Our empirical methodology accounts for a possible non-linear relationship through the use of threshold cointegration techniques. Our results confirm the non-linearity of the link between the two above-mentioned variables pointing to the existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for the Spanish case.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140988312000448
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Economics.

Volume (Year): 34 (2012)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Pages: 2148-2156

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:34:y:2012:i:6:p:2148-2156
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Lopez Ramon, 1994. "The Environment as a Factor of Production: The Effects of Economic Growth and Trade Liberalization," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 163-184, September.
  2. Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1374-1382, November.
  3. Alcantara, Vicent & Roca, Jordi, 1995. "Energy and CO2 emissions in Spain : Methodology of analysis and some results for 1980-1990," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 221-230, July.
  4. Jie He & Patrick Richard, 2009. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 in Canada," Cahiers de recherche 09-13, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  5. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Selden, Thomas M., 1995. "Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 85-101, May.
  6. Hamilton, James D, 2001. "A Parametric Approach to Flexible Nonlinear Inference," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(3), pages 537-73, May.
  7. Hiroki Iwata & Keisuke Okada & Sovannroeun Samreth, 2012. "Empirical study on the determinants of CO 2 emissions: evidence from OECD countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(27), pages 3513-3519, September.
  8. Kijima, Masaaki & Nishide, Katsumasa & Ohyama, Atsuyuki, 2010. "Economic models for the environmental Kuznets curve: A survey," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1187-1201, July.
  9. Pindyck, Robert S., 1998. "Irreversibilities and the timing of environmental policy," Working papers WP 4047-98., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  10. Lise, Wietze, 2006. "Decomposition of CO2 emissions over 1980-2003 in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1841-1852, September.
  11. Larry E. Jones & Rodolfo E. Manuelli, 2000. "Endogenous policy choice: the case of pollution and growth," Staff Report 276, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  12. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1995. "Neoclassical Growth, the J Curve for Abatement, and the Inverted U Curve for Pollution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 162-168, September.
  13. Richard S.J. Tol & Stephen W. Pacala & Robert H. Socolow, 2006. "Understanding Long-Term Energy Use And Carbon Dioxide Emissions In The Usa," Working Papers FNU-100, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Mar 2006.
  14. Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2005. "Energy consumption and GDP in developing countries: A cointegrated panel analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 415-427, May.
  15. Marzio Galeotti & Matteo Manera & Alessandro Lanza, 2009. "On the Robustness of Robustness Checks of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 42(4), pages 551-574, April.
  16. Xepapadeas, Anastasios, 2005. "Economic growth and the environment," Handbook of Environmental Economics, in: K. G. Mäler & J. R. Vincent (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 23, pages 1219-1271 Elsevier.
  17. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
  18. Schwert, G William, 1989. "Tests for Unit Roots: A Monte Carlo Investigation," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 7(2), pages 147-59, April.
  19. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1994. "Economic Growth and the Environment," NBER Working Papers 4634, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-36, July.
  21. Kijima, Masaaki & Nishide, Katsumasa & Ohyama, Atsuyuki, 2011. "EKC-type transitions and environmental policy under pollutant uncertainty and cost irreversibility," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 746-763, May.
  22. Martin Wagner & Georg Müller-Fürstenberger, 2004. "The Carbon Kuznets Curve: A Cloudy Picture Emitted by Bad Econometrics?," Diskussionsschriften dp0418, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
  23. Jordi Roca & Emilio Padilla & Mariona Farré & Vittorio Galletto, 2001. "Economic growth and atmospheric pollution in Spain: discussing the environmental Kuznets curve by hypothesis," Working Papers wp0101, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  24. Stokey, Nancy L, 1998. "Are There Limits to Growth?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(1), pages 1-31, February.
  25. Ang, James B., 2007. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 4772-4778, October.
  26. Pindyck, Robert S., 2002. "Optimal timing problems in environmental economics," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(9-10), pages 1677-1697, August.
  27. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan, 2003. "Energy consumption and GDP: causality relationship in G-7 countries and emerging markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 33-37, January.
  28. Shafik, Nemat & Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit, 1992. "Economic growth and environmental quality : time series and cross-country evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 904, The World Bank.
  29. McCONNELL, KENNETH E., 1997. "Income and the demand for environmental quality," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 383-399, November.
  30. Kelly, David L., 2003. "On environmental Kuznets curves arising from stock externalities," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1367-1390, June.
  31. DeJong, David N, et al, 1992. "Integration versus Trend Stationarity in Time Series," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 423-33, March.
  32. Marrero, Gustavo A., 2010. "Greenhouse gases emissions, growth and the energy mix in Europe," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1356-1363, November.
  33. Ang, James B., 2008. "Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 271-278.
  34. Beverly Hirtle, 2008. "Credit derivatives and bank credit supply," Staff Reports 276, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  35. Chevallier, Julien, 2011. "Evaluating the carbon-macroeconomy relationship: Evidence from threshold vector error-correction and Markov-switching VAR models," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/6970, Paris Dauphine University.
  36. Halicioglu, Ferda, 2009. "An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1156-1164, March.
  37. Chontanawat, Jaruwan & Hunt, Lester C. & Pierse, Richard, 2008. "Does energy consumption cause economic growth?: Evidence from a systematic study of over 100 countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 209-220.
  38. Halkos, George E. & Tsionas, Efthymios G., 2001. "Environmental Kuznets curves: Bayesian evidence from switching regime models," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 191-210, March.
  39. Hillard G. Huntington, 2005. "US carbon emissions, technological progress and economic growth since 1870," International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 23(4), pages 292-306.
  40. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:34:y:2012:i:6:p:2148-2156. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.