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Telework, Wages, and Time Use in the United States

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  • Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff
  • Vernon, Victoria

Abstract

Remote work is rapidly increasing in the US. Using data on full-time wage and salary workers from the GHIJ-GHIL American Time Use Survey Leave and Job Flexibilities Module, we estimate hourly wage differentials between teleworkers and office workers and compare how teleworkers and office workers allocate their time on office days and work-at-home days. Using an econometric method that relates selection on observables with selection on unobservables, we find that some teleworkers earn a wage premium, but it varies by occupation, gender, parental status, and teleworking intensity. In all subsamples, male, but not female, home-based teleworkers earn a wage premium. Among occasional teleworkers, we find a wage premium for all subsamples with the exception of mothers and men without children. Using time diaries, we find that teleworkers spend less time on commuting and grooming activities but more time on leisure and household production activities and more time with family on work-at-home days than office days. We do not find differences in workers' hours on average by telework status, but male teleworkers regardless of their work location on their diary day work slightly fewer minutes on weekday workdays than office workers.

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  • Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff & Vernon, Victoria, 2021. "Telework, Wages, and Time Use in the United States," GLO Discussion Paper Series 546 [rev.], Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:546r
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    Cited by:

    1. Marta Christina SUCIU & Adrian PETRE, 2022. "Telework in Romania. Current State and Sustainable Socio-Economic Effects of Its Development," Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, College of Management, National University of Political Studies and Public Administration, vol. 10(1), pages 53-68, March.
    2. Jose Maria Barrero & Nicholas Bloom & Steven J. Davis, 2020. "Why Working From Home Will Stick," Working Papers 2020-174, Becker Friedman Institute for Research In Economics.
    3. Charlene Marie Kalenkoski & Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia, 2022. "Impacts of COVID-19 on the self-employed," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(2), pages 741-768, February.
    4. Maria Barrero, Jose & Bloom, Nicholas & Davis, Steven J., 2021. "Internet access and its implications for productivity, inequality and resilience," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 113869, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    5. Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2022. "Multitasking," IZA Discussion Papers 15681, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Brandon J. Restrepo & Eliana Zeballos, 2022. "Work from home and daily time allocations: evidence from the coronavirus pandemic," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 735-758, September.
    7. Zaiceva-Razzolini, Anzelika, 2022. "Multitasking," GLO Discussion Paper Series 1173, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    8. Boca Daniela del & Rossi Maria Cristina & Oggero Noemi & Profeta Paola, 2022. "The impact of COVID-19 on the gender division of housework and childcare: Evidence from two waves of the pandemic in Italy," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 11(1), pages 1-20, January.
    9. Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia & Victoria Vernon, 2022. "Telework, Wages, and Time Use in the United States," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 687-734, September.
    10. Hirte, Georg & Laes, Renée, 2022. "Working from self-driving cars," CEPIE Working Papers 01/22, Technische Universität Dresden, Center of Public and International Economics (CEPIE).
    11. Zaiceva, A., 2022. "Multitasking," MERIT Working Papers 2022-031, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    remote work; working from home; telework; wages; time use; commuting;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation

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