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Women's career choices, social norms and child care policies

Author

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  • Barigozzi, Francesca
  • Cremer, Helmuth
  • Roeder, Kerstin

Abstract

Our model explains the observed gender-specific patterns of career and child care choices through endogenous social norms. We study how these norms interact with the gender wage gap. We show that via the social norm a couple's child care and career choices impose an externality on other couples, so that the laissez-faire is inefficient. We use our model to study the design and effectiveness of three commonly used policies. We find that child care subsidies and women quotas can be effective tools to mitigate or eliminate the externality. Parental leave, however, may even intensify the externality and decrease welfare.

Suggested Citation

  • Barigozzi, Francesca & Cremer, Helmuth & Roeder, Kerstin, 2017. "Women's career choices, social norms and child care policies," TSE Working Papers 17-754, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
  • Handle: RePEc:tse:wpaper:31369
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    Cited by:

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    2. Finlay, Jocelyn E., 2021. "Women’s reproductive health and economic activity: A narrative review," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).
    3. Barigozzi, Francesca & Cremer, Helmuth & Roeder, Kerstin, 2020. "Caregivers in the family: Daughters, sons and social norms," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).
    4. Barigozzi, Francesca & Cremer, Helmuth & Roeder, Kerstin, 2020. "Having it all, for all: Child-care subsidies and income distribution reconciled," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 176(C), pages 188-211.
    5. Righetto, Giovanni, 2023. "Marriage patterns and the gender gap in labor force participation: Evidence from Italy," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(C).
    6. Elisa Brini & Anna Zamberlan & Paolo Barbieri, 2022. "Culture portability from origin to destination country: The gender division of domestic work among migrants in Italy," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 47(20), pages 577-614.
    7. Barigozzi, Francesca & Cremer, Helmuth & Monfardini, Chiara, 2019. "The gender gap in informal child care: theory and some evidence from Italy," TSE Working Papers 19-1015, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    8. Patricia Palffy & Patrick Lehnert & Uschi Backes‐Gellner, 2023. "Social norms and gendered occupational choices of men and women: Time to turn the tide?," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(4), pages 380-410, October.
    9. Ralsmark, Hilda, 2017. "Education, norms, and gender equality," Working Papers in Economics 702, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    10. Tjasa Bartolj & Nika Murovec & Saso Polanec, 2022. "Reported time allocation and emotional exhaustion during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Slovenia," The Economic and Labour Relations Review, , vol. 33(1), pages 117-137, March.
    11. Bhuvanachithra Chidambaram & Joachim Scheiner, 2021. "Leisure Quality among German Parents—Exploring Urbanity, Mobility, and Partner Interaction as Determinants," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(11), pages 1-20, May.
    12. Sanae Tashiro & Chu-Ping Lo, 2020. "When Social Norms Influence the Employment of Women: The Case of Japan," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 46(3), pages 460-482, June.
    13. Del Rey, Elena & Racionero, Maria & Silva, Jose I., 2021. "Labour market effects of reducing the gender gap in parental leave entitlements," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    14. Alessandra Casarico & Elena Del Rey & Jose I. Silva, 2023. "Child care costs, household liquidity constraints, and gender inequality," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 36(3), pages 1461-1487, July.
    15. Cremer, Helmuth & Barigozzi, Francesca & Monfardini, Chiara, 2019. "The gender gap in informal child care: theory and some evidence from Italy," CEPR Discussion Papers 13782, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Du, Mengqiao, 2023. "Locked-in at home: The gender difference in analyst forecasts after the COVID-19 school closures," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Social norms; child care; women's career choices; child care subsidies; women quotas; parental leave;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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