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Gender Differences in Childcare: Time Allocation in Five European Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Inmaculada García-Mainar
  • José Alberto Molina
  • Víctor M. Montuenga

Abstract

This article analyses the intrahousehold allocation of time in households headed by heterosexual couples to show gender differences in childcare in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Using data for the five sample countries from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP; 1994-2001) and the framework of a general efficiency approach, each parent's hours spent on childcare are regressed against individual and household characteristics. Empirical results show a clear inequality in childcare between fathers and mothers, with this disparity being more evident in Mediterranean countries. Panel data estimates reveal that, in general, caring tasks are mainly influenced by the presence of young children in the household, by the total nonlabor income, and by the ratio of mothers' nonlabor income to family's nonlabor income, with this latter variable exhibiting different behavior across genders and across countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Inmaculada García-Mainar & José Alberto Molina & Víctor M. Montuenga, 2011. "Gender Differences in Childcare: Time Allocation in Five European Countries," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 119-150, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:femeco:v:17:y:2011:i:1:p:119-150
    DOI: 10.1080/13545701.2010.542004
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jose Maria Fernandez-Crehuet & J. Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal & Luisa Eugenia Reyes Recio, 2016. "The National Work–Life Balance Index©: The European Case," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 128(1), pages 341-359, August.
    2. Molina, Jose Alberto & Velilla, Jorge & Ortega, Raquel, 2015. "The decision to become an entrepreneur in Spain: The role of the household financial situation," MPRA Paper 68101, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. García, Lucia, 2018. "El mercado laboral en España desde la oferta: evolución reciente nacional y regional
      [Supply labour market in Spain: recent evolution at a national and regional level]
      ," MPRA Paper 85262, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. José Giménez-Nadal & Raquel Ortega, 2015. "Time Dedicated to Family by University Students: Differences by Academic Area in a Case Study," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 132-142, March.
    5. Lasierra, Jose Manuel & Molina, Jose Alberto & Ortega, Raquel, 2015. "Job satisfaction and motivation of public employees in Spain," MPRA Paper 64950, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Dan Wheatley and Zhongmin Wu, 2011. "Work, Inequality, and the Dual Career Household," Working Papers 2011/03, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division.
    7. Molina, José Alberto & Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Cuesta, José A. & Garcia-Lazaro, Carlos & Moreno, Yamir & Sanchez, Angel, 2013. "Gender Differences in Cooperation: Experimental Evidence on High School Students," IZA Discussion Papers 7421, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio & Molina, Jose Alberto, 2017. "The Substitution Effect and the Profit Function in Consumption: expressions from the Marshallian, Hicksian, and Frischian demand functions," MPRA Paper 82249, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Raul Caruso & Filomena Asgresta & Emiliano Sironi, 2015. "Profilo economico delle donne nel disagio post-partum. Un’indagine empirica presso l’Ospedale Niguarda di Milano," ECONOMIA PUBBLICA, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2015(2), pages 159-180.
    10. Ferrando-Latorre, Sandra, 2017. "Risky consumption and intergenerational mobility: a research program in a family context," MPRA Paper 79777, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Campaña, Juan Carlos & Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto, 2015. "Gender differences in the distribution of total work-time of Latin- American families: the importance of social norms," MPRA Paper 62759, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Nora Reich, 2014. "Fathers’ Childcare: The Differences Between Participation and Amount of Time," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 190-213, June.
    13. Campaña, Juan Carlos & Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Molina, Jose Alberto, 2016. "Diferencias entre auto-empleados y asalariados en los usos del tiempo: Aragón vs. Spain
      [Differences between self-employees and wage-earners in time uses: Aragon vs. Spain]
      ," MPRA Paper 71463, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. José Molina, 2015. "Caring within the Family: Reconciling Work and Family Life," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 1-4, March.
    15. Bruce Philp & Dan Wheatley, 2013. "European Work Time Regulation, Surplus-Value and Underemployment among Full-Time Employees: A Cross-Sectional Analysis using the 2009 EU LFS," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 18(1), pages 57-74, March.
    16. García, Lucia & Molina, José Alberto, 2017. "The household structure: recent international evolution," MPRA Paper 82049, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. García, Lucia, 2018. "Inter-generational and intra-generational transfers: international evidence," MPRA Paper 83986, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Gianna Giannelli & Lucia Mangiavacchi & Luca Piccoli, 2013. "Do parents drink their children’s welfare? Intra-household allocation of time between market labour, domestic work and child care in Russia," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-23, December.

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