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Combining time-variation and mixed-frequencies: an analysis of government spending multipliers in Italy

Author

Listed:
  • Antonello D’Agostino

    (ESM)

  • Jacopo Cimadomo

    (ECB)

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a time-varying parameter vector autoregression (VAR) model with stochastic volatility which allows for estimation on data sampled at different frequencies. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we extend the methodology developed by Cogley and Sargent (2005), and Primiceri (2005), to a mixed-frequency setting. In particular, our approach allows for the inclusion of two different categories of variables (high-frequency and low-frequency) into the same time-varying model. Second, we use this model to study the macroeconomic effects of government spending shocks in Italy over the 1988 Q4-2013 Q3 period. Italy - as well as most other euro area economies - is characterised by short quarterly time series for fiscal variables, whereas annual data are generally available for a longer sample before 1999. Our results show that the proposed time-varying mixed-frequency model improves on the performance of a simple linear interpolation model in generating the true path of the missing observations. Second, our empirical analysis suggests that government spending shocks tend to have positive effects on output in Italy. The fiscal multiplier, which is maximized at the one year horizon, follows a U-shape over the sample considered: it peaks at around 1.5 at the beginning of the sample, it then stabilizes between 0.8 and 0.9 from the mid-1990s to the late 2000s, before rising again to above unity during the recent crisis.

Suggested Citation

  • Antonello D’Agostino & Jacopo Cimadomo, 2015. "Combining time-variation and mixed-frequencies: an analysis of government spending multipliers in Italy," Working Papers 7, European Stability Mechanism.
  • Handle: RePEc:stm:wpaper:7
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    Cited by:

    1. Markus Heinrich & Magnus Reif, 2018. "Forecasting using mixed-frequency VARs with time-varying parameters," ifo Working Paper Series 273, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    2. Francesco Simone Lucidi, 2021. "The Misalignment of Fiscal Multipliers in Italian Regions," Working Papers in Public Economics 204, University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Economics and Law.
    3. Martin Feldkircher & Florian Huber & Michael Pfarrhofer, 2021. "Measuring the effectiveness of US monetary policy during the COVID‐19 recession," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 68(3), pages 287-297, July.
    4. Cimadomo, Jacopo & Giannone, Domenico & Lenza, Michele & Monti, Francesca & Sokol, Andrej, 2020. "Nowcasting with large Bayesian vector autoregressions," Working Paper Series 2453, European Central Bank.
    5. Henrique S. Basso & Omar Rachedi, 2021. "The Young, the Old, and the Government: Demographics and Fiscal Multipliers," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 13(4), pages 110-141, October.
    6. Magnus Reif, 2020. "Macroeconomics, Nonlinearities, and the Business Cycle," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 87.
    7. Piacentini, Paolo & Prezioso, Stefano & Testa, Giuseppina, 2015. "Effects of fiscal policy in the North and South of Italy," MPRA Paper 62372, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Ankargren Sebastian & Unosson Måns & Yang Yukai, 2020. "A Flexible Mixed-Frequency Vector Autoregression with a Steady-State Prior," Journal of Time Series Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(2), pages 1-41, July.
    9. Guy P. Nason & Ben Powell & Duncan Elliott & Paul A. Smith, 2017. "Should we sample a time series more frequently?: decision support via multirate spectrum estimation," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 180(2), pages 353-407, February.
    10. Thomas B. Götz & Alain W. Hecq, 2019. "Granger Causality Testing in Mixed‐Frequency VARs with Possibly (Co)Integrated Processes," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(6), pages 914-935, November.
    11. Ricco, Giovanni & Callegari, Giovanni & Cimadomo, Jacopo, 2014. "Signals from the Government: Policy Uncertainty and the Transmission of Fiscal Shocks," MPRA Paper 56136, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Ankargren, Sebastian & Jonéus, Paulina, 2021. "Simulation smoothing for nowcasting with large mixed-frequency VARs," Econometrics and Statistics, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 97-113.
    13. Nikolay Hristov & Oliver Hülsewig & Thomas Siemsen & Timo Wollmershäuser, 2019. "Restoring euro area monetary transmission: Which role for government bond rates?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 57(3), pages 991-1021, September.
    14. Thomas B Götz & Klemens Hauzenberger, 2021. "Large mixed-frequency VARs with a parsimonious time-varying parameter structure [Tracking the slowdown in long-run GDP growth]," The Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 24(3), pages 442-461.
    15. Li, Mingyang & Niu, Linlin, 2021. "Faster fiscal stimulus and a higher government spending multiplier in China: Mixed-frequency identification with SVAR," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 209(C).
    16. Götz, Thomas B. & Hauzenberger, Klemens, 2018. "Large mixed-frequency VARs with a parsimonious time-varying parameter structure," Discussion Papers 40/2018, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    17. Lilia Cavallari & Simone Romano, 2016. "Foresight And The Macroeconomic Impact Of Fiscal Policy: Evidence For France, Germany And Italy," Working Papers 0216, CREI Università degli Studi Roma Tre, revised 2016.
    18. Matteo Deleidi & Davide Romaniello & Francesca Tosi, 2021. "Quantifying fiscal multipliers in Italy: A Panel SVAR analysis using regional data," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 100(5), pages 1158-1177, October.
    19. Sebastian Ankargren & Paulina Jon'eus, 2019. "Estimating Large Mixed-Frequency Bayesian VAR Models," Papers 1912.02231, arXiv.org.
    20. Koester, Gerrit B. & Priesmeier, Christoph, 2015. "The Timing and Responsiveness of Fiscal Policy over the Business Cycle in Germany," MPRA Paper 68412, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Time variation; mixed-frequency data; government spending multiplier;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H30 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - General
    • H50 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - General

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