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Combining Time Variation and Mixed Frequencies: an Analysis of Government Spending Multipliers in Italy

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  • Jacopo Cimadomo
  • Antonello D'Agostino

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a time-varying parameter VAR model with stochastic volatility which allows for estimation on data sampled at different frequencies. Our contribution is twofold. First, we extend the methodology developed by Cogley and Sargent (2005), and Primiceri (2005), to a mixed-frequency setting. In particular, our approach allows for the inclusion of two different categories of variables (high-frequency and low-frequency) into the same time varying model. Second, we use this model to study the macroeconomic effects of government spending shocks in Italy over the 1988Q4-2013Q3 period. Italy - as well as most other euro area economies - is characterised by short quarterly time series for fiscal variables, whereas annual data are generally available for a longer sample before 1999. Our results show that the proposed time-varying mixed-frequency model improves on the performance of a simple linear interpolation model in generating the true path of the missing observations. Second, our empirical analysis suggests that government spending shocks tend to have positive effects on output in Italy. The fiscal multiplier, which is maximized at the one year horizon, follows a U-shape over the sample considered: it peaks at around 1.5 at the beginning of the sample, it then stabilizes between 0.8 and 0.9 from the mid-1990s to the late 2000s, before rising again to above unity during of the recent crisis. JEL Classification: C32, E62, H30, H50
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  • Jacopo Cimadomo & Antonello D'Agostino, 2016. "Combining Time Variation and Mixed Frequencies: an Analysis of Government Spending Multipliers in Italy," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(7), pages 1276-1290, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:japmet:v:31:y:2016:i:7:p:1276-1290
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    Cited by:

    1. Markus Heinrich & Magnus Reif, 2018. "Forecasting using mixed-frequency VARs with time-varying parameters," ifo Working Paper Series 273, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    2. Sebastian Ankargren & Paulina Jon'eus, 2019. "Simulation smoothing for nowcasting with large mixed-frequency VARs," Papers 1907.01075, arXiv.org.
    3. Cimadomo, Jacopo & Giannone, Domenico & Lenza, Michele & Monti, Francesca & Sokol, Andrej, 2020. "Nowcasting with large Bayesian vector autoregressions," Working Paper Series 2453, European Central Bank.
    4. Magnus Reif, 2020. "Macroeconomics, Nonlinearities, and the Business Cycle," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 87.
    5. Piacentini, Paolo & Prezioso, Stefano & Testa, Giuseppina, 2015. "Effects of fiscal policy in the North and South of Italy," MPRA Paper 62372, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Götz, Thomas B. & Hauzenberger, Klemens, 2018. "Large mixed-frequency VARs with a parsimonious time-varying parameter structure," Discussion Papers 40/2018, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    7. Ankargren Sebastian & Unosson Måns & Yang Yukai, 2020. "A Flexible Mixed-Frequency Vector Autoregression with a Steady-State Prior," Journal of Time Series Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(2), pages 1-41, July.
    8. Lilia Cavallari & Simone Romano, 2016. "Foresight And The Macroeconomic Impact Of Fiscal Policy: Evidence For France, Germany And Italy," Working Papers 0216, CREI Università degli Studi Roma Tre, revised 2016.
    9. Guy P. Nason & Ben Powell & Duncan Elliott & Paul A. Smith, 2017. "Should we sample a time series more frequently?: decision support via multirate spectrum estimation," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 180(2), pages 353-407, February.
    10. Thomas B. Götz & Alain W. Hecq, 2019. "Granger Causality Testing in Mixed‐Frequency VARs with Possibly (Co)Integrated Processes," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(6), pages 914-935, November.
    11. Ricco, Giovanni & Callegari, Giovanni & Cimadomo, Jacopo, 2014. "Signals from the Government: Policy Uncertainty and the Transmission of Fiscal Shocks," MPRA Paper 56136, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Sebastian Ankargren & Paulina Jon'eus, 2019. "Estimating Large Mixed-Frequency Bayesian VAR Models," Papers 1912.02231, arXiv.org.
    13. Koester, Gerrit B. & Priesmeier, Christoph, 2015. "The Timing and Responsiveness of Fiscal Policy over the Business Cycle in Germany," MPRA Paper 68412, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Henrique S. Basso & Omar Rachedi, 2018. "The young, the old, and the government: demographics and fiscal multipliers," Working Papers 1837, Banco de España.
    15. Nikolay Hristov & Oliver Hülsewig & Thomas Siemsen & Timo Wollmershäuser, 2019. "Restoring euro area monetary transmission: Which role for government bond rates?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 57(3), pages 991-1021, September.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H30 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - General
    • H50 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - General

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