IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Demographic convergence and its linkage with health inequalities in India

Listed author(s):
  • Srinivas, Goli
Registered author(s):

    This thesis comes out at a time when the debate on between-state and social group demographic and health inequalities continues to be largely debated based on most recent available information. However, analyses based on the recent demographic and health data have serious limitations in terms of understanding the true trajectories of between-state and social group inequalities. With the changing demographic scenario and most demographic indicators progressing towards the final stages of transition, the major concern in India has been heterogeneity across region and socioeconomic groups. While the demographic heterogeneity in India is well known, how far the differences are converging or diverging has been a matter of great interest. This study attempted to develop a comprehensive framework to study the demographic transition, convergence and its linkage with health inequalities in India. It advances the empirical examination of demographic convergence assessment by assessing convergence not only in the averages, but also in the absolute and relative inequalities in population and health indicators. The analyses foster that while economic variables are diverging, fertility variables are converging in recent years. Perhaps, it re-affirms the fact that fertility transition is not critically related to economic factors in India. The mortality convergence has some setbacks in recent years. The child health care utilization has shown converging although at a lesser magnitude. Moreover, fertility decline is associated with increasing in child health inequalities in a context where there are pre-existing socioeconomic inequalities. Inequality is often a consequence of progress. Not everyone gets rich at the same time, and not everyone gets immediate access to the latest life-saving measures. Further, growth, inequality, and catch up are the both sides of the same coin. The dark side is what happens when the process is hijacked, so that catch-up never comes. Powerful and wealthy elites have choked off demographic and health progress before, and they can do so again if they are allowed to undermine the institutions on which broad-based demographic and health progress depends. Now, it is confirmed from this study that a mere reduction in the number of children or fertility convergence in averages are not helping in distributing the fruits of demographic progress equally among the children of different states and socioeconomic groups. How far children and their development (particularly in terms of health) are faring during the progress of demographic transition is an important concern for population policy in India.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/79823/1/MPRA_paper_79823.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 79823.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: 05 Nov 2014
    Date of revision: 05 Dec 2014
    Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:79823
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany

    Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2459
    Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-992459
    Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as
    in new window


    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. D. F. Darwent, 1969. "Growth Poles and Growth Centers in Regional Planning—A Review," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 1(1), pages 5-31, June.
    3. anonymous, 1995. "Does the bouncing ball lead to economic growth?," Regional Update, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Jul, pages 1-2,4-6.
    4. R. Nagaraj & A. Varoudakis & M.-A. Véganzonès, 2000. "Long-run growth trends and convergence across Indian States," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(1), pages 45-70.
    5. Wagstaff, Adam & Paci, Pierella & van Doorslaer, Eddy, 1991. "On the measurement of inequalities in health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 545-557, January.
    6. Angus Deaton, 2003. "Health, Inequality, and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(1), pages 113-158, March.
    7. Aki Kangasharju, 1998. "beta convergence in Finland: regional differences in speed of convergence," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(5), pages 679-687.
    8. Angus S. Deaton & Christina Paxson, 2001. "Mortality, Education, Income, and Inequality among American Cohorts," NBER Chapters,in: Themes in the Economics of Aging, pages 129-170 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Gary S. Becker & Tomas J. Philipson & Rodrigo R. Soares, 2005. "The Quantity and Quality of Life and the Evolution of World Inequality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 277-291, March.
    10. Brian Goesling & Glenn Firebaugh, 2004. "The Trend in International Health Inequality," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(1), pages 131-146.
    11. Robert J. Barro, 2013. "Inflation and Economic Growth," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 14(1), pages 121-144, May.
    12. Ram, Rati, 1998. "Forty Years of the Life Span Revolution: An Exploration of the Roles of "Convergence," Income, and Policy," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(4), pages 849-857, July.
    13. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
    14. Michael R. Haines, 2002. "Ethnic Differences in Demographic Behavior in the United States: Has There Been Convergence?," NBER Working Papers 9042, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1994. "Endogenous Innovation in the Theory of Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 23-44, Winter.
    16. Parthapratim Pal & Jayati Ghosh, 2007. "Inequality in India: A survey of recent trends," Working Papers 45, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    17. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X, 1996. "The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1019-1036, July.
    18. Gaurav Datt & Martin Ravallion, 2002. "Is India's Economic Growth Leaving the Poor Behind?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(3), pages 89-108, Summer.
    19. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    20. Quah, Danny, 1993. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 426-434, April.
    21. Bloom, David E & Williamson, Jeffrey G, 1998. "Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 12(3), pages 419-455, September.
    22. Urmas Varblane & Priit Vahter, 2005. "An Analysis Of The Economic Convergence Process In The Transition Countries," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 37, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
    23. Galor, Oded, 1996. "Convergence? Inferences from Theoretical Models," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1056-1069, July.
    24. Robert E. Lucas, 2000. "Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 159-168, Winter.
    25. Puga, Diego, 1999. "The rise and fall of regional inequalities," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 303-334, February.
    26. Pfaffermayr, Michael, 2009. "Conditional [beta]- and [sigma]-convergence in space: A maximum likelihood approach," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 63-78, January.
    27. Luis Angeles, 2010. "Demographic transitions: analyzing the effects of mortality on fertility," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 23(1), pages 99-120, January.
    28. Goli, Srinivas & Arokiasamy, Perianayagam, 2014. "Trends in health and health inequalities among major states of India: assessing progress through convergence models," Health Economics, Policy and Law, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(02), pages 143-168, April.
    29. Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1997. "Technological Diffusion, Convergence, and Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 1-26, March.
    30. Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano & Diego Puga, 1998. "Agglomeration in the Global Economy: A Survey of the 'New Economic Geography'," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(6), pages 707-731, August.
    31. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    32. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    33. Bernard Fingleton & Enrique López-Bazo, 2006. "Empirical growth models with spatial effects," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 85(2), pages 177-198, June.
    34. D F Darwent, 1969. "Growth poles and growth centers in regional planning — a review," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 1(1), pages 5-32, January.
    35. Robert Haveman & Barbara Wolfe, 1995. "The Determinants of Children's Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1829-1878, December.
    36. Ronald Lee, 2003. "The Demographic Transition: Three Centuries of Fundamental Change," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(4), pages 167-190, Fall.
    37. Bernard Fingleton, 2007. "Testing the ‘New Economic Geography’: A Comparative Analysis Based on EU Regional Data," Chapters,in: New Directions in Economic Geography, chapter 3 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    38. Adam Wagstaff & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2004. "Overall versus socioeconomic health inequality: a measurement framework and two empirical illustrations," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(3), pages 297-301.
    39. McCombie, J L S, 1981. "What Still Remains of Kaldor's Laws?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(361), pages 206-216, March.
    40. Friedman, Milton, 1992. "Do Old Fallacies Ever Die?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(4), pages 2129-2132, December.
    41. G Ottaviano & Diego Puga, 1997. "Agglomeration in a global Economy: A Survey," CEP Discussion Papers dp0356, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    42. repec:cai:popine:popu_p1985_40n4-5_0770 is not listed on IDEAS
    43. James W. Vaupel & Vladimir Canudas Romo, 2002. "Decomposing change in life expectancy: a bouquet of formulas in honour of Nathan Keyfitz´s 90th birthday," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-042, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    44. Martin Ravallion, 2003. "Measuring Aggregate Welfare in Developing Countries: How Well Do National Accounts and Surveys Agree?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(3), pages 645-652, August.
    45. Nazrul Islam, 1998. "Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach—A Reply," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(1), pages 325-329.
    46. Samuel H. Preston, 1980. "Causes and Consequences of Mortality Declines in Less Developed Countries during the Twentieth Century," NBER Chapters,in: Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries, pages 289-360 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    47. Wagstaff, Adam, 2002. "Inequalities in health in developing countries - swimming against the tide?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2795, The World Bank.
    48. Angus Deaton, 2011. "What does the empirical evidence tell us about the injustice of health inequalities?," Working Papers 1364, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
    49. Xavier Sala-I-Martin, 1997. "Transfers, Social Safety Nets, and Economic Growth," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(1), pages 81-102, March.
    50. Niko Speybroeck & Peter Konings & John Lynch & Sam Harper & Dirk Berkvens & Vincent Lorant & Andrea Geckova & Ahmad Hosseinpoor, 2010. "Decomposing socioeconomic health inequalities," International Journal of Public Health, Springer;Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), vol. 55(4), pages 347-351, August.
    51. K. Navaneetham & A. Dharmalingam, 2000. "Utilization of maternal health care services in South India," Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum Working Papers 307, Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum, India.
    52. Sergio Rey & Brett Montouri, 1999. "US Regional Income Convergence: A Spatial Econometric Perspective," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 143-156.
    53. Krugman, Paul R., 1979. "Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 469-479, November.
    54. Bob Sutcliffe, 2005. "A Converging or Diverging World?," Working Papers 2, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    55. Tim Dyson, 1989. "The population history of Berar since 1881 and its potential wider significance," The Indian Economic & Social History Review, , vol. 26(2), pages 167-201, June.
    56. Maria ABREU & Henri L.F. DE GROOT & Raymond J.G.M. FLORAX, 2005. "Space And Growth: A Survey Of Empirical Evidence And Methods," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 21, pages 13-44.
    57. Costas Siriopoulos & Dimitrios Asteriou, 1998. "Testing for Convergence Across the Greek Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(6), pages 537-546, August.
    58. Matthias Doepke, 2005. "Child mortality and fertility decline: Does the Barro-Becker model fit the facts?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(2), pages 337-366, June.
    59. Sen, Amartya, 1983. "Development: Which Way Now?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 93(372), pages 742-762, December.
    60. Pradhan, Menno & Sahn, David E. & Younger, Stephen D., 2003. "Decomposing world health inequality," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 271-293, March.
    61. Matthew Cole & Eric Neumayer, 2003. "The pitfalls of convergence analysis: is the income gap really widening?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(6), pages 355-357.
    62. Angus S. Deaton & Christina Paxson, 2004. "Mortality, Income, and Income Inequality over Time in Britain and the United States," NBER Chapters,in: Perspectives on the Economics of Aging, pages 247-286 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    63. François Perroux, 1950. "Economic Space: Theory and Applications," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(1), pages 89-104.
    64. repec:pri:cheawb:what_does_the_empirical_evidence_tell_us_about_the_injustice.pdf is not listed on IDEAS
    65. Dholakia, Ravindra H., 1994. "Spatial Dimension of the Acceleration of Economic Growth in India," IIMA Working Papers WP1994-02-01_01243, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department.
    66. Caselli, Francesco & Esquivel, Gerardo & Lefort, Fernando, 1996. "Reopening the Convergence Debate: A New Look at Cross-Country Growth Empirics," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 363-389, September.
    67. Christophe Z. Guilmoto & S. Irudaya Rajan, 2001. "Spatial Patterns of Fertility Transition in Indian Districts," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 27(4), pages 713-738.
    68. Clark, Rob, 2011. "World health inequality: Convergence, divergence, and development," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 72(4), pages 617-624, February.
    69. Nazrul Islam, 2003. "What have We Learnt from the Convergence Debate?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(3), pages 309-362, July.
    70. Naushin Mahmood & Syed Mubashir Ali, 2002. "The Disease Pattern and Utilisation of Health Care Services in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 745-757.
    71. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-1085, December.
    72. Richard A. Easterlin, 2000. "The Worldwide Standard of Living since 1800," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 7-26, Winter.
    73. Neumayer, Eric, 2004. "Recessions lower (some) mortality rates:: evidence from Germany," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 58(6), pages 1037-1047, March.
    74. Wagstaff, Adam & Watanabe, Naoko, 2000. "Socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in the developing world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2434, The World Bank.
    75. Eric Neumayer, 2004. "HIV/AIDS and Cross-National Convergence in Life Expectancy," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(4), pages 727-742.
    76. Kakwani, Nanak & Wagstaff, Adam & van Doorslaer, Eddy, 1997. "Socioeconomic inequalities in health: Measurement, computation, and statistical inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 87-103, March.
    77. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:79823. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.