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Inequality in India: A survey of recent trends

Author

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  • Parthapratim Pal
  • Jayati Ghosh

Abstract

This paper analyses the nature and causes of the patterns of inequality and poverty in India. Since the economic liberalization in the early 1990s, the evidence suggests increasing inequality (in both spatial and vertical terms) as well as persistent poverty. The macroeconomic policies possibly responsible for these trends include—fiscal tightening, regressive tax policies and expenditure cuts; financial sector reform that reduced institutional credit flow to small producers and agriculturalists; liberalization of rules for foreign and domestic investment, leading to more regional imbalance and skewed investment patterns, and trade liberalization, which has affected livelihoods and employment generation.

Suggested Citation

  • Parthapratim Pal & Jayati Ghosh, 2007. "Inequality in India: A survey of recent trends," Working Papers 45, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  • Handle: RePEc:une:wpaper:45
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    File URL: http://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2007/wp45_2007.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Angus Deaton and Jean Drèze & Jean Drèze, 2002. "Poverty and Inequality in India: A Reexamination," Working papers 107, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
    2. repec:pri:rpdevs:deaton_dreze_poverty_india is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Angus Deaton & Valerie Kozel, 2005. "Data and Dogma: The Great Indian Poverty Debate," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 20(2), pages 177-199.
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    Cited by:

    1. Roy, Chandan & Roy Mukherjee, Sanchari & Ghosh, Shantanu, 2012. "Sericulture as an Employment Generating Household Industry in West Bengal," MPRA Paper 43672, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2012.
    2. Rambarran, Richard, 2014. "The Socio-Economic Status of Women in the Urban Slums of India," MPRA Paper 62736, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Peggy Levitt & N. Rajaram, 2013. "The Migration–Development Nexus and Organizational Time," International Migration Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(3), pages 483-507, September.
    4. Rashmi Umesh Arora, 2012. "Finance and inequality: a study of Indian states," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(34), pages 4527-4538, December.
    5. Srinivas, Goli, 2014. "Demographic convergence and its linkage with health inequalities in India," MPRA Paper 79823, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Dec 2014.
    6. repec:spr:jsecdv:v:19:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s40847-017-0034-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Chalasani, Satvika, 2012. "Understanding wealth-based inequalities in child health in India: A decomposition approach," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 75(12), pages 2160-2169.
    8. Pathak, Praveen Kumar & Singh, Abhishek, 2011. "Trends in malnutrition among children in India: Growing inequalities across different economic groups," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 73(4), pages 576-585, August.
    9. Damien Krichewsky, 2010. "Negotiating the Terms of A New Social Contract: Private Companies, Civil Society and the State in India," Working Papers id:2394, eSocialSciences.
    10. Amit Basole & Deepankar Basu, 2015. "Non-Food Expenditures and Consumption Inequality in India," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2015-06, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    India; inequality; poverty; growth and distribution; macroeconomic policies;

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

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