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A Comprehensive Analysis of Poverty in India


  • Arvind Panagariya and Megha Mukim


This paper offers a comprehensive analysis of poverty in India. It shows that no matter which of the two official poverty lines we use, poverty has declined steadily in all states and for all social and religious groups. Accelerated growth between the fiscal years 2004-05 and 2009-10 has also led to an accelerated decline in poverty rates. Moreover, the decline in poverty rates during these years has been sharper for the socially disadvantaged groups relative to upper caste groups so that we now observe a narrowing of the gap in the poverty rates between the two sets of social groups. The paper also provides a discussion of the recent controversies in India regarding the choice of poverty lines.

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  • Arvind Panagariya and Megha Mukim, 2013. "A Comprehensive Analysis of Poverty in India," Working Papers 201301, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Jul 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecq:wpaper:201301

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Panagariya, Arvind, 2011. "India: The Emerging Giant," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199751563.
    2. Datt, Gaurav, 1998. "Poverty in India and Indian states," FCND discussion papers 47, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Ganesh-Kumar, A. & Mehta, Rajesh & Pullabhotla, Hemant & Prasad, Sanjay K. & Ganguly, Kavery & Gulati, Ashok, 2012. "Demand and supply of cereals in India: 2010-2025:," IFPRI discussion papers 1158, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Arvind Panagariya and Vishal More, 2013. "Poverty by Social, Religious and Economic Groups in India and its Largest States, 1993-94 to 2011-12," Working Papers 201302, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Oct 2013.
    5. J.Salcedo Cain & Rana Hasan & Devashish Mitra, 2010. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction: New Evidence from Indian States," Working Papers 3333, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Nov 2010.
    6. Angus Deaton and Jean Drèze & Jean Drèze, 2002. "Poverty and Inequality in India: A Reexamination," Working papers 107, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
    7. Bhagwati, Jagdish & Panagariya, Arvind (ed.), 2012. "India's Reforms: How they Produced Inclusive Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199915187, June.
    8. repec:pri:rpdevs:deaton_dreze_poverty_india is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Megha Mukim & Arvind Panagariya, 2011. "Growth, Openness and the Socially Disadvantaged," Working Papers 1113, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Jun 2011.
    10. Angus Deaton & Valerie Kozel, 2005. "Data and Dogma: The Great Indian Poverty Debate," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 20(2), pages 177-199.
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    Cited by:

    1. Himanshu & Kunal Sen, 2014. "Revisiting the Great Indian Poverty Debate: Measurement, Patterns, and Determinants," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series 20314, BWPI, The University of Manchester.
    2. More, Sachin & Singh, Narendra, 2014. "Poverty in India: concepts,measurement and status," MPRA Paper 62400, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    3. Srijit Mishra, 2014. "Incidence of poor and poverty risk in India across NSS regions for rural and urban areas, 2004-05 and 2009-10," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2014-021, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    4. Dhongde, Shatakshee, 2017. "Measuring Segregation of the Poor: Evidence from India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 111-123.
    5. Chang Woon Nam & Sumin Nam & Peter Steinhoff, 2017. "Modi's 'Make in India' Industrial Reform Policy and East Asian Flying-Geese Paradigm," CESifo Working Paper Series 6431, CESifo Group Munich.
    6. Rajesh K. Chauhan & Sanjay K. Mohanty & S V Subramanian & Jajati K Parida & Balakrushna Padhi, 2016. "Regional Estimates of Poverty and Inequality in India, 1993–2012," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 127(3), pages 1249-1296, July.

    More about this item


    India; privatization; government owned firms; industry reforms;

    JEL classification:

    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

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