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Poverty by Social, Religious and Economic Groups in India and its Largest States, 1993-94 to 2011-12

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  • Arvind Panagariya and Vishal More

Abstract

Taking advantage of the household expenditure data from the 68th round of the National Sample Survey, conducted in 2011-12, we offer a comprehensive and up-to-date evaluation of the pattern of poverty alleviation across social, religious and economic groups in rural and urban India both nationally and at the level of the state. Poverty estimates at the Tendulkar line show that no mater what criterion we choose to slice the data (social, religious or economic groups), poverty has declined sharply between 1993- 94 and 2011-12 with a significant acceleration during the faster-growth period of 2004-05 to 2011-12. Poverty rates among the Scheduled Castes have declined particularly sharply with the gap between these rates and those associated with the general population narrowing considerably. Poverty among the Scheduled Tribes has also declined with acceleration in the decline between 2004-05 and 2011-12 but the level remains high with significant scope and need for targeted action. Surprisingly, in as many as seven out of the sixteen states for which we can credibly estimate poverty rates for both Hindus and Muslims, the poverty rate for the latter has dropped below the corresponding rate for the former. Nationally, the poverty rate among Muslims in rural areas is now within one percent of the rate for the Hindus. The gap remains nearly ten percentage points, however, in urban areas. The paper also suggests how the variation in poverty rates across groups could be used to develop criteria for the identification of the poor for purposes of targeting in social programs.

Suggested Citation

  • Arvind Panagariya and Vishal More, 2013. "Poverty by Social, Religious and Economic Groups in India and its Largest States, 1993-94 to 2011-12," Working Papers 201302, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Oct 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecq:wpaper:201302
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    File URL: http://indianeconomy.columbia.edu/sites/default/files/working_papers/working_paper_2013-02-final.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Panagariya, Arvind, 2011. "India: The Emerging Giant," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199751563, Decembrie.
    2. Megha Mukim & Arvind Panagariya, 2011. "Growth, Openness and the Socially Disadvantaged," Working Papers 1113, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Jun 2011.
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    1. Arvind Panagariya & Megha Mukim, 2014. "A Comprehensive Analysis of Poverty in India," Asian Development Review, MIT Press, vol. 31(1), pages 1-52, March.
    2. Bhuyan, Biswabhusan & Sahoo, Bimal Kishore & Suar, Damodar, 2020. "Nutritional status, poverty, and relative deprivation among socio-economic and gender groups in India: Is the growth inclusive?," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 18(C).
    3. Kaushik Basu & Sattwick Dey Biswas & Pratik Harish & Sasi Dhar & Mounik Lahiri, 2016. "Is multi-party coalition government better for the protection of socially backward classes in India?," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2016-109, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    4. Sahoo, Bimal & Neog, Bhaskar Jyoti, 2015. "Heterogeneity and participation in Informal employment among non-cultivator workers in India," MPRA Paper 68136, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Shariq Mohammed, A.R., 2019. "Does a good father now have to be rich? Intergenerational income mobility in rural India," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 99-114.
    6. M. Prasada Rao & M. Gopinath Reddy, 2013. "An Analytical Study of Poverty, Consumption and Asset Inequalities in South Asia," International Studies, , vol. 50(4), pages 343-365, October.
    7. Pinaki Das & Bibek Paria & Shama Firdaush, 2021. "Juxtaposing Consumption Poverty and Multidimensional Poverty: A Study in Indian Context," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 153(2), pages 469-501, January.
    8. A. Amarender Reddy & Namrata Singha Roy & Divya Pradeep, 2021. "Has India’s Employment Guarantee Program Achieved Intended Targets?," SAGE Open, , vol. 11(4), pages 21582440211, October.
    9. Kaushik Basu & Sattwick Dey Biswas & Pratik Harish & Sasi Dhar & Mounik Lahiri, 2016. "Is multi-party coalition government better for the protection of socially backward classes in India?," WIDER Working Paper Series 109, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

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