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The Environmental Kuznets Curve: The Role of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade Openness

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  • Ben Jebli, Mehdi
  • Ben Youssef, Slim
  • Ozturk, Ilhan

Abstract

We use panel cointegration techniques to investigate the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, and trade openness in three different models for a panel of twenty five OECD countries over the period 1980-2009. Also the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis has been tested for these countries. Short-run Granger causality tests show the existence of a unidirectional causality running from the square of per capita output to per capita CO2 emissions and per capita non-renewable energy consumption and a unidirectional causality running from per capita real exports to per capita CO2 emissions. There is an indirect short-run causality running from per capita output to per capita non-renewable energy consumption. In the long-run, the FMOLS and DOLS estimates suggest that per capita GDP and per capita non-renewable energy consumption have a positive impact on per capita CO2 emissions. The long-run estimates suggest that the square of per capita GDP, per capita renewable energy consumption, and per capita real exports and imports have a negative impact on per capita CO2 emissions. Therefore, more trade openness and more use of renewable energy are efficient strategies to combat global warming.

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  • Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2013. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: The Role of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade Openness," MPRA Paper 51672, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:51672
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    Cited by:

    1. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Ahmad, Nawaz & Alam, Shaista, 2016. "Financial development and environmental quality: The way forward," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 353-364.
    2. repec:eee:enepol:v:113:y:2018:i:c:p:356-367 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Nasre Esfahani, Mohammad & Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan, 2016. "Revisiting the relationships between non-renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Iran," MPRA Paper 71124, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 173-185.
    5. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim & Apergis, Nicholas, 2014. "The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: The case of Tunisia," MPRA Paper 59827, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. repec:spr:endesu:v:20:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s10668-017-9929-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Renewable Energy Consumption and Agriculture: Evidence for Cointegration and Granger causality for Tunisian Economy," MPRA Paper 68018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Apergis, Nicholas & Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2018. "Does renewable energy consumption and health expenditures decrease carbon dioxide emissions? Evidence for sub-Saharan Africa countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 1011-1016.
    9. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina," MPRA Paper 77513, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Nasre Esfahani, Mohammad & Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan, 2015. "Will be there New CO2 Emitters in the Future? Evidence of Long-run Panel Co-integration for N-11 Countries," MPRA Paper 72692, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Ben Jebli, Mehdi, 2015. "The Impact of Combustible Renewables and Waste Consumption and Transport on the Environmental Degradation: The Case of Tunisia," MPRA Paper 68038, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Asongu, Simplice & El Montasser, Ghassen & Toumi, Hassen, 2015. "Testing the Relationships between Energy Consumption, CO2 emissions and Economic Growth in 24 African Countries: a Panel ARDL Approach," MPRA Paper 69442, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Roubaud, David & Farhani, Sahbi, 2018. "How economic growth, renewable electricity and natural resources contribute to CO2 emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 356-367.
    14. Bilgili, Faik & Koçak, Emrah & Bulut, Ümit, 2016. "The dynamic impact of renewable energy consumption on CO2 emissions: A revisited Environmental Kuznets Curve approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 838-845.
    15. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries," MPRA Paper 68477, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Bölük, Gülden & Mert, Mehmet, 2015. "The renewable energy, growth and environmental Kuznets curve in Turkey: An ARDL approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 587-595.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets curve; Renewable energy; Non-renewable energy; Trade openness; CO2 emissions; Panel cointegration techniques.;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy

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