IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/68018.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Renewable Energy Consumption and Agriculture: Evidence for Cointegration and Granger causality for Tunisian Economy

Author

Listed:
  • Ben Jebli, Mehdi
  • Ben Youssef, Slim

Abstract

This paper uses the vector error correction model (VECM) and Granger causality tests to investigate short and long-run relationships between per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, real gross domestic product (GDP), renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, trade openness ratio and agricultural value added (AVA) in Tunisia spanning the period 1980-2011. The Johansen-Juselius test shows that all our considered variables are cointegrated. Short-run Granger causality tests reveal the existence of bidirectional causalities between AVA and CO2 emissions, and between AVA and trade; unidirectional causalities running from non-renewable energy and output to AVA and to renewable energy, and from CO2 emissions to renewable energy. Interestingly, there are long-run bidirectional causalities between all considered variables. Our long-run parameters estimates show that non-renewable energy, trade and AVA increase CO2 emissions, whereas renewable energy reduces CO2 emissions. In addition, the inverted U-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is not supported. Our policy recommendations are to increase international economic exchanges because this gives new opportunities to the agricultural sector to develop and to benefit from renewable energy technology transfer. Subsidizing renewable energy use in the agricultural sector enables it to become more competitive on the international markets while polluting less and contributing to combat global warming.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Renewable Energy Consumption and Agriculture: Evidence for Cointegration and Granger causality for Tunisian Economy," MPRA Paper 68018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:68018
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/68018/1/MPRA_paper_68018.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Halicioglu, Ferda, 2009. "An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1156-1164, March.
    2. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 173-185.
    3. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and growth in Eurasia," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1392-1397, November.
    4. Mehdi Ben Jebli & Slim Ben Youssef & Ilhan Ozturk, 2015. "The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade: Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 27(3), pages 288-300, September.
    5. Ousama Ben-Salha & Maamar Sebri, 2014. "A multivariate analysis of the causal flow between renewable energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(4), pages 2396-2410.
    6. Muhammad Shahbaz & Smile Dube & Ilhan Ozturk & Abdul Jalil, 2015. "Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 475-481.
    7. Sadorsky, Perry, 2009. "Renewable energy consumption and income in emerging economies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 4021-4028, October.
    8. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    9. Khalid Mushtaq & Faisal Abbas & Abedullah & Abdul Ghafoor, 2007. "Energy Use for Economic Growth: Cointegration and Causality Analysis from the Agriculture Sector of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 1065-1073.
    10. repec:wsi:medjxx:v:03:y:2011:i:01:n:s1793812011000314 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Sadorsky, Perry, 2012. "Energy consumption, output and trade in South America," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 476-488.
    12. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
    13. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2010. "The causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania: Evidence from ARDL bound testing approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1938-1943, June.
    14. Al-mulali, Usama & Fereidouni, Hassan Gholipour & Lee, Janice Y.M., 2014. "Electricity consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources and economic growth: Evidence from Latin American countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 290-298.
    15. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 656-660, January.
    16. Ajmi, Ahdi Noomen & El Montasser, Ghassen & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2013. "Testing the relationships between energy consumption and income in G7 countries with nonlinear causality tests," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 126-133.
    17. Türkekul, Berna & UnakItan, Gökhan, 2011. "A co-integration analysis of the price and income elasticities of energy demand in Turkish agriculture," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2416-2423, May.
    18. Sadorsky, Perry, 2009. "Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 456-462, May.
    19. Karkacier, Osman & Gokalp Goktolga, Z. & Cicek, Adnan, 2006. "A regression analysis of the effect of energy use in agriculture," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3796-3800, December.
    20. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Output, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade: Evidence from a panel of 69 countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 799-808.
    21. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2011. "The renewable energy consumption-growth nexus in Central America," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 343-347, January.
    22. Tugcu, Can Tansel & Ozturk, Ilhan & Aslan, Alper, 2012. "Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth relationship revisited: Evidence from G7 countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1942-1950.
    23. Fodha, Mouez & Zaghdoud, Oussama, 2010. "Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 1150-1156, February.
    24. Ozcan, Burcu, 2013. "The nexus between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Middle East countries: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1138-1147.
    25. Ang, James B., 2007. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 4772-4778, October.
    26. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    27. Houssem Eddine Chebbi & Marcelo Olarreaga & Habib Zitouna, 2011. "Trade Openness Andco2emissions In Tunisia," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 3(01), pages 29-53.
    28. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Coal consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1353-1359, March.
    29. Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi & Ben Youssef, Adel & M'henni, Hatem & Rault, Christophe, 2012. "Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 342-349.
    30. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2013. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: The Role of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade Openness," MPRA Paper 51672, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    31. Sadorsky, Perry, 2011. "Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 739-749, September.
    32. Fallahi, Firouz, 2011. "Causal relationship between energy consumption (EC) and GDP: A Markov-switching (MS) causality," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 4165-4170.
    33. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Khraief, Naceur & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2014. "Environmental Kuznets curve in an open economy: A bounds testing and causality analysis for Tunisia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 325-336.
    34. Baum, Christopher F., 2004. "A review of Stata 8.1 and its time series capabilities," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 151-161.
    35. Nejib Chouaibi & Tahar Abdessalem, 2011. "Causality between Electricity Consumption and economic growth in Tunisia: policy implications," International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(3), pages 211-226.
    36. Belloumi, Mounir, 2009. "Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia: Cointegration and causality analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2745-2753, July.
    37. Sebri, Maamar & Abid, Mehdi, 2012. "Energy use for economic growth: A trivariate analysis from Tunisian agriculture sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 711-716.
    38. Houssem Eddine Chebbi, 2010. "Agriculture and economic growth in Tunisia," China Agricultural Economic Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(1), pages 63-78, February.
    39. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Kumar Tiwari, Aviral & Nasir, Muhammad, 2013. "The effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on CO2 emissions in South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1452-1459.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2016. "Combustible renewables and waste consumption, agriculture, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil," MPRA Paper 69694, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina," MPRA Paper 77513, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries," MPRA Paper 68477, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Renewable energy, arable land, agriculture, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Morocco," MPRA Paper 76798, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Renewable energy; Agriculture; Trade; Granger causality; Tunisia.;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • Q1 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:68018. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.