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Environmental Kuznets curve in an open economy: A bounds testing and causality analysis for Tunisia

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  • Shahbaz, Muhammad
  • Khraief, Naceur
  • Uddin, Gazi Salah
  • Ozturk, Ilhan

Abstract

The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis posits that in the early stages of economic growth environmental degradation and pollution increase. However, as a nation reaches a certain level of income, measured in per capita terms, the trend reverses. The postulated relationship thus produces an inverted U-shaped curve. The topic has drawn much academic interest in the context of developed and emerging nations.

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  • Shahbaz, Muhammad & Khraief, Naceur & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2014. "Environmental Kuznets curve in an open economy: A bounds testing and causality analysis for Tunisia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 325-336.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:34:y:2014:i:c:p:325-336
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.022
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    Keywords

    EKC; Energy; Tunisia;

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy

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