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Portuguese Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth: A Time Series Analysis


  • Muhammad Shahbaz

    () (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology,Lahore, Pakistan)

  • Nuno Carlos Leitão

    (Professor at Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, Portugal.)


This paper examines the relationships between economic growth , energy consumption, trade openness and carbon dioxide emissions for the period 1970-2009 in case of Portugal. In doing so, we use a time series (OLS estimator, the regression with Newey -West standard errors, and ARMA model). We also apply the test of unit root (the Argument Dickey-Fuller test, ADF). The empirical results show that economic growth is directly linked with carbon dioxide emissions. The energy consumption and international trade have positive impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Our results are according to the existence of environmental Kuznets Curve.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Shahbaz & Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2013. "Portuguese Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth: A Time Series Analysis," Bulletin of Energy Economics (BEE), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(1), pages 1-7, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:ijr:beejor:v:1:y:2013:i:1:p:1-7

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Mohd Shahidan Shaari & Nor Ermawati Hussain & Hussin Abdullah & Syahida Kamil, 2014. "Relationship among Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth and CO2 Emission: A Panel Data Analysis," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(4), pages 706-715.
    2. Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2014. "Economic Growth, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Renewable Energy and Globalization," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(3), pages 391-399.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Khraief, Naceur & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2014. "Environmental Kuznets curve in an open economy: A bounds testing and causality analysis for Tunisia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 325-336.
    4. Muhammad Shahbaz & Smile Dube & Ilhan Ozturk & Abdul Jalil, 2015. "Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 475-481.
    5. Cemil Serhat AKIN, 2014. "The Impact of Foreign Trade, Energy Consumption andIncome on Co2 Emissions," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(3), pages 465-475.
    6. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Salah Uddin, Gazi & Ur Rehman, Ijaz & Imran, Kashif, 2014. "Industrialization, electricity consumption and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 575-586.
    7. Muhammad Shahbaz & Saleheen Khan & Amjad Ali & Mita Bhattacharya, 2017. "The Impact Of Globalization On Co2 Emissions In China," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 62(04), pages 929-957, September.
    8. Tang, Chor Foon & Abosedra, Salah, 2014. "The impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth in the MENA countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 458-464.
    9. Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2015. "Energy Consumption and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel Data Analysis for Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(1), pages 138-147.
    10. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nasreen, Samia & Abbas, Faisal & Anis, Omri, 2015. "Does foreign direct investment impede environmental quality in high-, middle-, and low-income countries?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 275-287.
    11. Shahbaz, muhammad & Solarin, Sakiru Adebola & Sbia, Rashid & Bibi, Sadia, 2015. "Does Energy Intensity Contribute to CO2 Emissions? A Trivariate Analysis in Selected African Countries," MPRA Paper 64335, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 19 Mar 2015.

    More about this item


    Portugal; Time series; ARMA model; Environmental Kuznets curve;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment


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