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The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and Portuguese agricultural productivity


  • Leitão, Nuno Carlos


This study analyses the relationship among carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, agricultural labour productivity, agricultural land productivity and agricultural raw material exports using a time series for the period 1960-2015. In this article, some theoretical hypotheses are formulated, aiming to explain the bidirectional causality between agricultural productivity and climate change. These hypotheses are tested by using Vector Autoregression (VAR), Granger causality and Vector Error Correction Models (VECM). Results confirm relevant theoretical hypotheses between agricultural productivity and climate change and show that the variables used are stationary. Agricultural labour and land productivity as well as agricultural raw material exports are positively related to CO2 emissions, meaning that these variables stimulate environmental pollution. Empirical results presented in the paper might be of interest to the academic community and also to policymakers.

Suggested Citation

  • Leitão, Nuno Carlos, 2018. "The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and Portuguese agricultural productivity," Studies in Agricultural Economics, Research Institute for Agricultural Economics, vol. 120(3), December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:stagec:280974
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.280974

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nuno Carlos Leit o, 2015. "Energy Consumption and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel Data Analysis for Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(1), pages 138-147.
    2. Wang, H. & Ang, B.W., 2018. "Assessing the role of international trade in global CO2 emissions: An index decomposition analysis approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 218(C), pages 146-158.
    3. Ang, B.W. & Liu, F.L., 2001. "A new energy decomposition method: perfect in decomposition and consistent in aggregation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 537-548.
    4. Unknown, 2016. "Energy for Sustainable Development," Conference Proceedings 253270, Guru Arjan Dev Institute of Development Studies (IDSAsr).
    5. Hlalefang Khobai & Pierre Le Roux, 2017. "The Relationship between Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Carbon Dioxide Emission: The Case of South Africa," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(3), pages 102-109.
    6. Javid, Muhammad & Sharif, Fatima, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curve and financial development in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 406-414.
    7. Nuno Carlos Leit o, 2014. "Economic Growth, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Renewable Energy and Globalization," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(3), pages 391-399.
    8. Nuno Carlos Leitão & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2013. "Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Urbanization And Globalization: A Dynamic Panel Data," Economic Research Guardian, Weissberg Publishing, vol. 3(1), pages 22-32, June.
    9. Haider Mahmood & Tarek Tawfik Yousef Alkhateeb, 2017. "Trade and Environment Nexus in Saudi Arabia: An Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(5), pages 291-295.
    10. Muhammad Shahbaz & Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2013. "Portuguese Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth: A Time Series Analysis," Bulletin of Energy Economics (BEE), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(1), pages 1-7, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jeremi s M t Balogh, 2020. "The Role of Agriculture in Climate Change: A Global Perspective," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 10(2), pages 401-408.

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