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The Relationship between Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Carbon Dioxide Emission: The Case of South Africa

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  • Hlalefang Khobai

    (Department of Economics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa,)

  • Pierre Le Roux

    (Department of Economics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa)

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emission, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for South Africa. The annual data for the period between 1971 and 2013 is employed. The results of Johansen test of co-integration show that there is a long run relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emission, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization in South Africa. The results for the existence and direction of vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality indicates that there is bidirectional causality flowing between energy consumption and economic growth in the long run. The VECM results further found a unidirectional causality flowing from CO2 emissions, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization to energy consumption and from energy consumption, CO2 emissions, trade openness and urbanization to economic growth. These results posit a fresh perspective for creating energy policies that will boost economic growth in South Africa.

Suggested Citation

  • Hlalefang Khobai & Pierre Le Roux, 2017. "The Relationship between Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Carbon Dioxide Emission: The Case of South Africa," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(3), pages 102-109.
  • Handle: RePEc:eco:journ2:2017-03-13
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Tafadzwa Ruzive & Thando Mkhombo & Simbarashe Mhaka & Nomahlubi Mavikela & Andrew Phiri, 2019. "Electricity Intensity and Unemployment in South Africa: A Quantile Regression Analysis," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(1), pages 31-40.
    2. Kabiru Saidu Musa & Rabiu Maijama’a, 2020. "Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and Environmental Pollution in Nigeria: Evidence from ARDL Approach," Energy Economics Letters, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 7(2), pages 61-73, December.
    3. Khobai, Hlalefang, 2017. "Electricity consumption and Economic growth: A panel data approach to Brics countries," MPRA Paper 82460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Guduza, Sinazo & Phiri, Andrew, 2017. "Efficient Market Hypothesis: Evidence from the JSE equity and bond markets," MPRA Paper 83487, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Munir Ahmad & Gul Jabeen & Muhammad Irfan & Marie Claire Mukeshimana & Naseer Ahmed & Maria Jabeen, 2020. "Modeling Causal Interactions Between Energy Investment, Pollutant Emissions, and Economic Growth: China Study," Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 1-12, March.
    6. Hlalefang Khobai, 2018. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in Indonesia. Evidence from the ARDL bounds testing approach," Working Papers 1806, Department of Economics, Nelson Mandela University, revised Feb 2018.
    7. Chaisri Tarasawatpipat & Thammarak Srimarut & Witthaya Mekhum, 2020. "Seeing Domestic and Industrial Logistic in Context of CO2 Emission: Role of Container Port Traffic, Railway Transport, and Air Transport Intensity in Thailand," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 10(5), pages 570-576.
    8. Hlalefang Khobai & Pierre Le Roux, 2018. "Does Renewable Energy Consumption Drive Economic Growth: Evidence from Granger-Causality Technique," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 8(2), pages 205-212.
    9. Kunofiwa Tsaurai, 2019. "The Impact of Financial Development on Carbon Emissions in Africa," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(3), pages 144-153.
    10. Khobai, Hlalefang, 2018. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in Argentina. A multivariate co-integration analysis," MPRA Paper 85080, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Hlalefang Khobai & Sanderson Abel & Pierre Le Roux, 2017. "A Review of the Nexus Between Energy consumption and Economic growth in the Brics countries," Working Papers 1715, Department of Economics, Nelson Mandela University, revised Nov 2017.
    12. Babalwa Mapapu & Andrew Phiri, 2017. "Carbon emissions and economic growth in South Africa: A quantile regression approach," Working Papers 1713, Department of Economics, Nelson Mandela University, revised Oct 2017.
    13. Phiri, Andrew, 2019. "Economic growth, environmental degradation and business cycles in Eswatini," Business and Economic Horizons (BEH), Prague Development Center (PRADEC), vol. 15(3).
    14. Farhan Ahmed & Shazia Kousar & Amber Pervaiz & José Pedro Ramos-Requena, 2020. "Financial Development, Institutional Quality, and Environmental Degradation Nexus: New Evidence from Asymmetric ARDL Co-Integration Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(18), pages 1-1, September.
    15. Hlalefang Khobai, 2018. "Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa Countries," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 8(3), pages 283-289.
    16. Matheus Koengkan & Luciano Dias Losekann & José Alberto Fuinhas, 2019. "The relationship between economic growth, consumption of energy, and environmental degradation: renewed evidence from Andean community nations," Environment Systems and Decisions, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 95-107, March.
    17. Awad, Atif, 2019. "Does economic integration damage or benefit the environment? Africa's experience," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 991-999.
    18. repec:eco:journ2:2017-04-17 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Leitão, Nuno Carlos, 2018. "The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and Portuguese agricultural productivity," Studies in Agricultural Economics, Research Institute for Agricultural Economics, vol. 120(3), December.
    20. Shahriyar Mukhtarov & Jeyhun I. Mikayilov & Vüqar Ýsmayýlov, 2017. "The Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Azerbaijan," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(6), pages 32-38.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Energy Consumption; Economic Growth; Carbon Dioxide Emission; South Africa;

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy

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