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Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Urbanization And Globalization: A Dynamic Panel Data


  • Nuno Carlos Leitão

    (Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, and CEFAGE, University of Évora, Portugal)

  • Muhammad Shahbaz

    (Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan)


This study investigates the existence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and its relationship with economic growth, energy consumption and globalization over the period of 1990-2010. We apply a dynamic panel data (GMM-system estimator) using the data of selected 18 countries. This estimator permits to solve the problems of serial correlation, heteroskedasticity and endogeneity for some explanatory variables. The environmental consequences of economic growth are according to environmental Kuznets (EKC) hypothesis. Globalization seems to be a main engine that provides a way to enhance production intensively by utilizing abundant domestic resources efficiently. The energy consumption has positive impact on CO2 emissions. Urbanization improves environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions, i.e an inverted-U shaped relationship between urbanization and CO2 emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Nuno Carlos Leitão & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2013. "Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Urbanization And Globalization: A Dynamic Panel Data," Economic Research Guardian, Weissberg Publishing, vol. 3(1), pages 22-32, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:wei:journl:v:3:y:2013:i:1:p:22-32

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    Cited by:

    1. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz, 2017. "Trade and Environmental Quality in African Countries: Do Institutions Matter?," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 43(1), pages 155-172, January.
    2. Nayan, Sabri & Kadir, Norsiah & Ahmad, Mahyudin & Abdullah, Mat Saad, 2013. "Revisiting Energy Consumption and GDP: Evidence from Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," MPRA Paper 48714, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Leitão, Nuno Carlos, 2018. "The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and Portuguese agricultural productivity," Studies in Agricultural Economics, Research Institute for Agricultural Economics, vol. 120(3), December.
    4. Mohamed Abdouli & Olfa Kamoun & Besma Hamdi, 2018. "The impact of economic growth, population density, and FDI inflows on $$\hbox {CO}_{2}$$ CO 2 emissions in BRICTS countries: Does the Kuznets curve exist?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 54(4), pages 1717-1742, June.
    5. Lukman O Oyelami, 2019. "Relative effects of regional and global trade on carbon emissions in ECOWAS member countries," International Area Studies Review, Center for International Area Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 64-75, March.
    6. Ekonomou, George & Halkos, George, 2023. "Is tourism growth a power of environmental‘de -degradation’? An empirical analysis for Eurozone economic space," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 1016-1029.
    7. Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2018. "Climate Change and Kuznets Curve: Portuguese Experience," Working Papers 2018.11, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    8. Nuno Carlos Leit o, 2014. "Economic Growth, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Renewable Energy and Globalization," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(3), pages 391-399.
    9. Muhammad Shahbaz & Smile Dube & Ilhan Ozturk & Abdul Jalil, 2015. "Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 475-481.
    10. Leitão, Nuno Carlos, 2018. "Climate Change and Kuznets Curve: Portuguese Experience," CSI: Climate and Sustainable Innovation 273122, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    11. Nuno Carlos Leitão & Jeremiás Máté Balogh, 2020. "The impact of intra-industry trade on carbon dioxide emissions: The case of the European Union," Agricultural Economics, Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 66(5), pages 203-214.
    12. Nuno Carlos Leitão & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2016. "Economic Growth, Tourism Arrivals and Climate Change," Bulletin of Energy Economics (BEE), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 4(1), pages 35-43, March.
    13. Adams, Samuel & Klobodu, Edem Kwame Mensah, 2017. "Urbanization, democracy, bureaucratic quality, and environmental degradation," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 1035-1051.
    14. Nuno Carlos Leit o, 2015. "Energy Consumption and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel Data Analysis for Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(1), pages 138-147.

    More about this item


    Carbon Dioxide (CO2); Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC); Economic Growth; Energy Consumption;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth


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