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Revisiting Energy Consumption and GDP: Evidence from Dynamic Panel Data Analysis


  • Nayan, Sabri
  • Kadir, Norsiah
  • Ahmad, Mahyudin
  • Abdullah, Mat Saad


In recent years the issues of energy consumption and economic development have become the concern of many parties, particularly policy makers. The empirical outcomes of previous studies examining the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth have been inconclusive and conflicting due to different sample periods, variables used, countries studied and econometric techniques employed. Utilising dynamic panel data GMM-system estimator on datasets of selected 23 countries across 12 years ranging from 2000-2011, this paper shows evidence of uni-directional causality between energy consumption and GDP. In energy consumption model, the GDP is found to significantly determine energy consumption, whereas in the GDP model, energy consumption has however less significant effect on GDP. Energy price and investment are the other important determinants of energy consumption and income, respectively.

Suggested Citation

  • Nayan, Sabri & Kadir, Norsiah & Ahmad, Mahyudin & Abdullah, Mat Saad, 2013. "Revisiting Energy Consumption and GDP: Evidence from Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," MPRA Paper 48714, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48714

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Alonso-Borrego, Cesar & Arellano, Manuel, 1999. "Symmetrically Normalized Instrumental-Variable Estimation Using Panel Data," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(1), pages 36-49, January.
    2. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    3. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    4. Huang, Bwo-Nung & Hwang, M.J. & Yang, C.W., 2008. "Causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP growth revisited: A dynamic panel data approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 41-54, August.
    5. Ouédraogo, Idrissa M., 2010. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in Burkina Faso: A cointegration analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 524-531, May.
    6. Nuno Carlos Leitão & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2013. "Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Urbanization And Globalization: A Dynamic Panel Data," Economic Research Guardian, Weissberg Publishing, vol. 3(1), pages 22-32, June.
    7. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2007. "Energy consumption and GDP revisited: A panel analysis of developed and developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1206-1223, November.
    8. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ecmode:v:69:y:2018:i:c:p:205-219 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Osman, Mohamed & Gachino, Geoffrey & Hoque, Ariful, 2016. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in the GCC countries: Panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 318-327.
    3. Muhammad Shahbaz & Smile Dube & Ilhan Ozturk & Abdul Jalil, 2015. "Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 475-481.
    4. Nuno Carlos Leitão, 2015. "Energy Consumption and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel Data Analysis for Portugal," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(1), pages 138-147.
    5. Ameer, Ayesha & Munir, Kashif, 2016. "Effect of Economic Growth, Trade Openness, Urbanization, and Technology on Environment of Selected Asian Countries," MPRA Paper 74571, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Energy consumption; Economic growth; Panel Data Analysis; System GMM.;

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy

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