IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/76798.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Renewable energy, arable land, agriculture, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Morocco

Author

Listed:
  • Ben Jebli, Mehdi
  • Ben Youssef, Slim

Abstract

The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests are used to investigate the dynamic short and long-run causality relationships between per capita renewable energy (RE) consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, real gross domestic product (GDP), agricultural value added (AVA), and arable land use (LUSE) for the case of Morocco during the period 1980-2013. Two models are used: the first with the AVA variable, and the second with the LUSE variable. The Wald test confirms the existence of a long-run relationship between variables for each considered model. Our long-run estimates indicate that an increase in economic growth, agricultural production, and arable land use contribute to increase the use of renewable energy, while a decrease in CO2 emissions increases renewable energy consumption. Granger causality tests reveal the existence of a short-run unidirectional causality running from AVA and from LUSE to RE consumption; a long-run unidirectional causality running from LUSE to RE, and a long-run bidirectional causality between AVA and RE. We recommend that Morocco should continue to encourage renewable energy use because this latter is not in competition with agricultural production for land use, but rather it is a complementary activity.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Renewable energy, arable land, agriculture, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Morocco," MPRA Paper 76798, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:76798
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/76798/1/MPRA_paper_76798.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and growth in Eurasia," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1392-1397, November.
    2. Mehdi Ben Jebli & Slim Ben Youssef & Ilhan Ozturk, 2015. "The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade: Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 27(3), pages 288-300, September.
    3. Sadorsky, Perry, 2009. "Renewable energy consumption and income in emerging economies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 4021-4028, October.
    4. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    5. Khalid Mushtaq & Faisal Abbas & Abedullah & Abdul Ghafoor, 2007. "Energy Use for Economic Growth: Cointegration and Causality Analysis from the Agriculture Sector of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 1065-1073.
    6. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
    7. Pao, Hsiao-Tien & Fu, Hsin-Chia, 2013. "The causal relationship between energy resources and economic growth in Brazil," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 793-801.
    8. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 656-660, January.
    9. Türkekul, Berna & UnakItan, Gökhan, 2011. "A co-integration analysis of the price and income elasticities of energy demand in Turkish agriculture," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2416-2423, May.
    10. Al-mulali, Usama & Solarin, Sakiru Adebola & Sheau-Ting, Low & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2016. "Does moving towards renewable energy causes water and land inefficiency? An empirical investigation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 303-314.
    11. de Arce, Rafael & Mahía, Ramón & Medina, Eva & Escribano, Gonzalo, 2012. "A simulation of the economic impact of renewable energy development in Morocco," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 335-345.
    12. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
    13. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    14. Sadorsky, Perry, 2009. "Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 456-462, May.
    15. Anis Omri & Saida Daly & Duc Khuong Nguyen, 2015. "A robust analysis of the relationship between renewable energy consumption and its main drivers," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(28), pages 2913-2923, June.
    16. Fritzsche, Kerstin & Zejli, Driss & Tänzler, Dennis, 2011. "The relevance of global energy governance for Arab countries: The case of Morocco," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 4497-4506, August.
    17. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Renewable Energy Consumption and Agriculture: Evidence for Cointegration and Granger causality for Tunisian Economy," MPRA Paper 68018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Karkacier, Osman & Gokalp Goktolga, Z. & Cicek, Adnan, 2006. "A regression analysis of the effect of energy use in agriculture," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3796-3800, December.
    19. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Output, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade: Evidence from a panel of 69 countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 799-808.
    20. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2011. "The renewable energy consumption-growth nexus in Central America," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 343-347, January.
    21. Tugcu, Can Tansel & Ozturk, Ilhan & Aslan, Alper, 2012. "Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth relationship revisited: Evidence from G7 countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1942-1950.
    22. Shuddhasattwa Rafiq & Ruhul Salim & Nicholas Apergis, 2016. "Agriculture, trade openness and emissions: an empirical analysis and policy options," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 60(3), pages 348-365, July.
    23. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    24. Salim, Ruhul A. & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa, 2012. "Why do some emerging economies proactively accelerate the adoption of renewable energy?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 1051-1057.
    25. Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "CO2 emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy and economic growth in the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 2911-2915, June.
    26. Muhammad Imran Qureshi & Usama Awan & Zeeshan Arshad & Amran Md. Rasli & Khalid Zaman & Faisal Khan, 2016. "Dynamic linkages among energy consumption, air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and agricultural production in Pakistan: sustainable agriculture key to policy success," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 84(1), pages 367-381, October.
    27. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries," MPRA Paper 68477, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    28. Tang, Chor Foon & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2013. "Sectoral analysis of the causal relationship between electricity consumption and real output in Pakistan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 885-891.
    29. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2016. "Combustible renewables and waste consumption, agriculture, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil," MPRA Paper 69694, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    30. Sebri, Maamar & Abid, Mehdi, 2012. "Energy use for economic growth: A trivariate analysis from Tunisian agriculture sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 711-716.
    31. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    32. Shafiei, Sahar & Salim, Ruhul A., 2014. "Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 547-556.
    33. Dogan, Eyup, 2016. "Analyzing the linkage between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth by considering structural break in time-series data," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 1126-1136.
    34. Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2016. "Finance–Growth–Energy Nexus and the Role of Agriculture and Modern Sectors: Evidence from ARDL Bounds Test Approach to Cointegration in Pakistan," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 17(5), pages 1037-1059, October.
    35. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E. & Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 2255-2260, September.
    36. Dogan, Eyup & Sebri, Maamar & Turkekul, Berna, 2016. "Exploring the relationship between agricultural electricity consumption and output: New evidence from Turkish regional data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 370-377.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina," MPRA Paper 77513, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Boukhelkhal, Abdelaziz & Bengana, Ismail, 2018. "Cointegration and causality among electricity consumption, economic, climatic and environmental factors: Evidence from North -Africa region," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 1193-1206.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina," MPRA Paper 77513, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2016. "Combustible renewables and waste consumption, agriculture, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil," MPRA Paper 69694, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Renewable Energy Consumption and Agriculture: Evidence for Cointegration and Granger causality for Tunisian Economy," MPRA Paper 68018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Sebri, Maamar & Ben-Salha, Ousama, 2014. "On the causal dynamics between economic growth, renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and trade openness: Fresh evidence from BRICS countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 14-23.
    5. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2013. "Economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption and emissions in North Africa," MPRA Paper 47765, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Alper, Aslan & Oguz, Ocal, 2016. "The role of renewable energy consumption in economic growth: Evidence from asymmetric causality," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 953-959.
    7. Mohamed, Hassen & Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2019. "Renewable and fossil energy, terrorism, economic growth, and trade: Evidence from France," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 459-467.
    8. Sebri, Maamar, 2015. "Use renewables to be cleaner: Meta-analysis of the renewable energy consumption–economic growth nexus," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 657-665.
    9. Kahia, Montassar & Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane Ben & Lanouar, Charfeddine, 2017. "Renewable and non-renewable energy use - economic growth nexus: The case of MENA Net Oil Importing Countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 127-140.
    10. Adewuyi, Adeolu O. & Awodumi, Olabanji B., 2017. "Biomass energy consumption, economic growth and carbon emissions: Fresh evidence from West Africa using a simultaneous equation model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 453-471.
    11. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Raghutla, Chandrashekar & Chittedi, Krishna Reddy & Jiao, Zhilun & Vo, Xuan Vinh, 2020. "The effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth: Evidence from the renewable energy country attractive index," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 207(C).
    12. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 173-185.
    13. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Belloumi, Mounir, 2017. "Investigation of the causal relationships between combustible renewables and waste consumption and CO2 emissions in the case of Tunisian maritime and rail transport," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 820-829.
    14. Dogan, Eyup & Seker, Fahri, 2016. "Determinants of CO2 emissions in the European Union: The role of renewable and non-renewable energy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 429-439.
    15. Ocal, Oguz & Aslan, Alper, 2013. "Renewable energy consumption–economic growth nexus in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 494-499.
    16. Ben Jebli, Mehdi, 2015. "The Impact of Combustible Renewables and Waste Consumption and Transport on the Environmental Degradation: The Case of Tunisia," MPRA Paper 68038, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Aslan, Alper, 2016. "The causal relationship between biomass energy use and economic growth in the United States," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 362-366.
    18. Ousama Ben-Salha & Maamar Sebri, 2014. "A multivariate analysis of the causal flow between renewable energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(4), pages 2396-2410.
    19. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Output, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade: Evidence from a panel of 69 countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 799-808.
    20. Omri, Anis & Ben Mabrouk, Nejah & Sassi-Tmar, Amel, 2015. "Modeling the causal linkages between nuclear energy, renewable energy and economic growth in developed and developing countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1012-1022.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Autoregressive distributed lag; Granger causality; renewable energy; agricultural value added; arable land use; Morocco.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
    • Q1 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture
    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:76798. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Joachim Winter (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.