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Does moving towards renewable energy causes water and land inefficiency? An empirical investigation


  • Al-mulali, Usama
  • Solarin, Sakiru Adebola
  • Sheau-Ting, Low
  • Ozturk, Ilhan


This study investigates the effect of renewable energy production on water and land footprint in 58 developed and developing countries for the period of 1980–2009. Utilizing the ecological footprint as an indicator, the fixed effects, difference and system generalized method of moment (GMM) approaches were employed and eight different models were constructed to achieve robustness in the empirical outcomes. Despite the use of different methods and models, the outcome was the same whereby GDP growth, urbanization, and trade openness increase the water and land footprint. Moreover, renewable energy production increases the water and land inefficiency because of its positive effect on ecological footprint. Additionally, based on the square of GDP it is concluded that the EKC hypothesis does not exist while the square of renewable energy production indicates that renewable energy production will continue to increase water and land footprint in the future. From the outcome of this study, a number of recommendations were provided to the investigated countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Al-mulali, Usama & Solarin, Sakiru Adebola & Sheau-Ting, Low & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2016. "Does moving towards renewable energy causes water and land inefficiency? An empirical investigation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 303-314.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:93:y:2016:i:c:p:303-314
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.03.023

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    Cited by:

    1. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina," MPRA Paper 77513, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Yang, Moucun & Moghimi, M.A. & Zhu, Yuezhao & Qiao, Runpeng & Wang, Yinfeng & Taylor, Robert A., 2020. "Optical and thermal performance analysis of a micro parabolic trough collector for building integration," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 260(C).
    3. Selim Jürgen Ergun & Maria Fernanda Rivas, 2020. "Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Uruguay using Ecological Footprint as a Measure of Environmental Degradation," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 10(4), pages 473-485.
    4. Mohamed, Hassen & Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2019. "Renewable and fossil energy, terrorism, economic growth, and trade: Evidence from France," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 459-467.
    5. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Renewable energy, arable land, agriculture, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Morocco," MPRA Paper 76798, University Library of Munich, Germany.


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