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The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia

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  • Ben Jebli, Mehdi
  • Ben Youssef, Slim

Abstract

We use the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach for cointegration with structural breaks and the vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality approach in order to investigate relationships between per capita CO2 emissions, GDP, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade (exports or imports) for Tunisia during the period 1980-2009. We show the existence of a short-run unidirectional causality running from trade, GDP, CO2 emission and non-renewable energy to renewable energy. Our long-run estimates show that non-renewable energy and trade have a positive impact on CO2 emissions, whereas renewable energy impacts weakly and negatively CO2 emission when using the model with exports and this impact is statistically insignificant when using the model with imports. The inverted U-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is not supported graphically and analytically in the long-run. This means that Tunisia has not yet reached the required level of per capita GDP to get an inverted U-shaped EKC. Our main policy recommendations for Tunisia are the following: (i) to radically reform the subsidies system granted by the Tunisian government for fossil fuels consumption; (ii) to encourage the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency by reinforcing actual projects and regulatory framework; (iii) to locate ports near exporting industrial zones (or vice versa) to reduce emission of pollution caused by the transport of merchandise; (iv) to elaborate a strategy for maximizing its benefit from renewable energy technology transfer occurring when importing capital goods; (v) to encourage the creation of renewable energy projects for export to the EU with a proportion of production for national consumption.

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  • Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia," MPRA Paper 61282, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:61282
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    2. Wang, Zhaohua & Zhang, Bin & Liu, Tongfan, 2016. "Empirical analysis on the factors influencing national and regional carbon intensity in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 34-42.
    3. Amri, Fethi, 2017. "Intercourse across economic growth, trade and renewable energy consumption in developing and developed countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 527-534.
    4. Nasre Esfahani, Mohammad & Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan, 2016. "Revisiting the relationships between non-renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Iran," MPRA Paper 71124, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. repec:eee:transa:v:111:y:2018:i:c:p:78-95 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 173-185.
    7. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim & Apergis, Nicholas, 2014. "The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: The case of Tunisia," MPRA Paper 59827, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Cerdeira Bento, João Paulo & Moutinho, Victor, 2016. "CO2 emissions, non-renewable and renewable electricity production, economic growth, and international trade in Italy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 142-155.
    9. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Belloumi, Mounir, 2017. "Investigation of the causal relationships between combustible renewables and waste consumption and CO2 emissions in the case of Tunisian maritime and rail transport," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 820-829.
    10. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Renewable Energy Consumption and Agriculture: Evidence for Cointegration and Granger causality for Tunisian Economy," MPRA Paper 68018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. repec:eee:rensus:v:81:y:2018:i:p1:p:1226-1240 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Apergis, Nicholas & Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2018. "Does renewable energy consumption and health expenditures decrease carbon dioxide emissions? Evidence for sub-Saharan Africa countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 1011-1016.
    13. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina," MPRA Paper 77513, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Mohammad Nasre Esfahani & Ehsan Rasoulinezhad, 2016. "Will be there New CO2 Emitters in the Future? Evidence of Longrun Panel Co-integration for N-11 Countries," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 6(3), pages 463-470.
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    17. Ben Jebli, Mehdi, 2015. "The Impact of Combustible Renewables and Waste Consumption and Transport on the Environmental Degradation: The Case of Tunisia," MPRA Paper 68038, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets curve; Renewable and non-renewable energy; International trade; Autoregressive distributed lag; Tunisia.;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

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