IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

How applicable are the new keynesian DSGE models to a typical low-income economy?

  • Senbeta, Sisay

This paper assesses the applicability of new Keynesian DSGE models to a typical low income economy like those in Sub Saharan Africa. To this effect, we first review the development, criticisms and recent advances in DSGE modeling. Then we assess the implications of the assumptions of the standard open economy New Keynesian DSGE model within the context of the economic environment of a typical low income economy. Our assessment shows the following two points. First, though there are many criticisms to these models, most recent advances seem to have addressed most of these criticisms. However, there are still some outstanding criticisms that are serious challenges not only to DSGE models but also to all conventional economic models. Second, the current tendency of applying these models to explain or predict economic phenomenon in low income countries without incorporating the structural specificities of these countries cannot be justified. In stead, for these models to be helpful to understand the economic events in low income countries, most of their components must be changed or modified so that these models capture some salient specificities of low income economies. In this study we identify some of these components and suggest the possible changes or modifications.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/30931/1/MPRA_paper_30931.pdf
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31043/1/MPRA_paper_31043.pdf
File Function: revised version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 30931.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 16 May 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30931
Contact details of provider: Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Krusell, P & Smith Jr, A-A, 1995. "Income and Wealth Heterogeneity in the Macroeconomic," RCER Working Papers 399, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  2. Christopher Adam & Stephen O’Connell & Edward Buffie, 2007. "Monetary Policy Rules For Manging Aid Surges In Africa," WEF Working Papers 0016, ESRC World Economy and Finance Research Programme, Birkbeck, University of London.
  3. Brian Snowdon & Howard R. Vane, 2005. "Modern Macroeconomics," Books, Edward Elgar, number 3092, December.
  4. Patrick Kehoe & Varadarajan V. Chari, 2006. "Modern Macroeconomics in Practice: How Theory is Shaping Policy," NBER Working Papers 12476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Jordi Galí & Frank Smets & Rafael Wouters, 2012. "Unemployment in an Estimated New Keynesian Model," National Bank of Poland Working Papers 106, National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute.
  6. Marcel Fafchamps, 2004. "Market Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa: Theory and Evidence," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262062364, June.
  7. Polterovich, Victor & Popov, Vladimir, 2003. "Accumulation of Foreign Exchange Reserves and Long Term Growth," MPRA Paper 20069, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. José Emilio Boscá & Rafael Domenech & Javier Ferri, 2009. "Search, Nash Bargaining and Rule of Thumb Consumers," Working Papers 0912, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
  9. Stiglitz, Joseph & Ocampo, Jose Antonio & Spiegel, Shari & Ffrench-Davis, Ricardo & Nayyar, Deepak, 2006. "Stability with Growth: Macroeconomics, Liberalization and Development," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199288144, March.
  10. Ratto, Marco & Roeger, Werner & Veld, Jan in 't, 2009. "QUEST III: An estimated open-economy DSGE model of the euro area with fiscal and monetary policy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 222-233, January.
  11. M. Woodford., 2010. "Convergence in Macroeconomics: Elements of the New Synthesis," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 10.
  12. Mark Gertler & Luca Sala & Antonella Trigari, 2008. "An Estimated Monetary DSGE Model with Unemployment and Staggered Nominal Wage Bargaining," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(8), pages 1713-1764, December.
  13. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles Evans, 2001. "Nominal Rigidities and the Dynamic Effects of a Shock to Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 8403, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. M. Ayhan Kose & Raymond Riezman, 1999. "Trade Shocks and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Africa," CESifo Working Paper Series 203, CESifo Group Munich.
  15. Michael Reiter, 2006. "Solving heterogeneous-agent models by projection and perturbation," Economics Working Papers 972, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  16. Jordi Galí, 2008. "Monetary Policy and the Open Economy
    [Monetary Policy, Inflation, and the Business Cycle: An Introduction to the New Keynesian Framework]
    ," Introductory Chapters, Princeton University Press.
  17. Frank Smets & Raf Wouters, 2007. "Shocks and Frictions in US Business Cycles : a Bayesian DSGE Approach," Working Paper Research 109, National Bank of Belgium.
  18. V. V. Chari & Patrick J. Kehoe & Ellen R. McGrattan, 2009. "New Keynesian Models: Not Yet Useful for Policy Analysis," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 242-66, January.
  19. Matheson, Troy, 2010. "Assessing the fit of small open economy DSGEs," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 906-920, September.
  20. Jesús Fernández-Villaverde, 2009. "The Econometrics of DSGE Models," NBER Working Papers 14677, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Jordi Galí, 2008. "Monetary Policy Design in the Basic New Keynesian Model
    [Monetary Policy, Inflation, and the Business Cycle: An Introduction to the New Keynesian Framework]
    ," Introductory Chapters, Princeton University Press.
  22. Lars Peter Hansen & James J. Heckman, 1996. "The Empirical Foundations of Calibration," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(1), pages 87-104, Winter.
  23. Finn E. Kydland & Edward C. Prescott, 1994. "The computational experiment: an econometric tool," Staff Report 178, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  24. Heathcote, Jonathan, 2001. "Fiscal Policy with Heterogeneous Agents and Incomplete Markets," Working Papers 01-03, Duke University, Department of Economics.
  25. Jordi Gali & J. David Lopez-Salido & Javier Valles, 2004. "Rule-of-Thumb Consumers and the Design of Interest Rate Rules," NBER Working Papers 10392, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Michael Woodford, 2010. "Financial Intermediation and Macroeconomic Analysis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 24(4), pages 21-44, Fall.
  27. Alan P. Kirman, 1992. "Whom or What Does the Representative Individual Represent?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(2), pages 117-136, Spring.
  28. Gertler, Mark & Karadi, Peter, 2011. "A model of unconventional monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 17-34, January.
  29. Robert J. Barro, 1988. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth," NBER Working Papers 2588, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Galí, Jordi & Monacelli, Tommaso, 2005. "Optimal Monetary and Fiscal Policy in a Currency Union," CEPR Discussion Papers 5374, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  31. Campbell, John Y & Mankiw, N Gregory, 1990. "Permanent Income, Current Income, and Consumption," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 8(3), pages 265-79, July.
  32. Rafael Portillo & Andrew Berg & Jan Gottschalk & Luis-Felipe Zanna, 2010. "The Macroeconomics of Medium-Term Aid Scaling-Up Scenarios," IMF Working Papers 10/160, International Monetary Fund.
  33. Paul De Grauwe, 2010. "Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Macroeconomics," CESifo Working Paper Series 3020, CESifo Group Munich.
  34. Holmberg, Karolina, 2006. "Derivation and Estimation of a New Keynesian Phillips Curve in a Small Open Economy," Working Paper Series 197, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  35. Jordi Galí, 2008. "Introduction to Monetary Policy, Inflation, and the Business Cycle: An Introduction to the New Keynesian Framework
    [Monetary Policy, Inflation, and the Business Cycle: An Introduction to the New Ke
    ," Introductory Chapters, Princeton University Press.
  36. Lee, Lung-fei, 1994. "Rational expectations in limited dependent variable models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 97-104, October.
  37. Ben Bernanke & Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1998. "The Financial Accelerator in a Quantitative Business Cycle Framework," NBER Working Papers 6455, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  38. David Colander & Peter Howitt & Alan Kirman & Axel Leijonhufvud & Perry Mehrling, 2008. "Beyond DSGE Models: Toward an Empirically Based Macroeconomics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(2), pages 236-40, May.
  39. Cooley, Thomas F, 1997. "Calibrated Models," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 55-69, Autumn.
  40. James E. Hartley, 1996. "Retrospectives: The Origins of the Representative Agent," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(2), pages 169-177, Spring.
  41. Lucas, Robert Jr, 1976. "Econometric policy evaluation: A critique," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 19-46, January.
  42. Reinhart, Carmen & Ogaki, Masao & Ostry, Jonathan, 1996. "Saving Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Developing Countries: A Comparison," MPRA Paper 6978, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  43. Shanaka J. Peiris & Magnus Saxegaard, 2007. "An Estimated Dsge Model for Monetary Policy Analysis in Low-Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 07/282, International Monetary Fund.
  44. Yann Algan & Xavier Ragot, 2010. "Monetary policy with Heterogeneous Agents and Borrowing Constraints," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 13(2), pages 295-316, April.
  45. Wim Meeusen, 2011. "Whither the Microeconomic Foundations of Macroeconomic Theory ?," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 54(1), pages 51-80.
  46. Adolfson, Malin & Laseen, Stefan & Linde, Jesper & Villani, Mattias, 2007. "Bayesian estimation of an open economy DSGE model with incomplete pass-through," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 481-511, July.
  47. Jorge Alonso-Ortiz & Richard Rogerson, 2010. "Taxes, transfers, and employment in an incomplete markets model," CQER Working Paper 2010-07, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  48. Akerlof, George A., 2001. "Behavioral Macroeconomics and Macroeconomic Behavior," Nobel Prize in Economics documents 2001-4, Nobel Prize Committee.
  49. Lawrence J. Christiano & Mathias Trabandt & Karl Walentin, 2010. "DSGE Models for Monetary Policy Analysis," NBER Working Papers 16074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  50. Pichler, Paul, 2011. "Solving the multi-country Real Business Cycle model using a monomial rule Galerkin method," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 240-251, February.
  51. Camilo E Tovar, 2008. "DSGE models and central banks," BIS Working Papers 258, Bank for International Settlements.
  52. Olivier Blanchard & Jordi Galí, 2006. "Labor markets and monetary policy: A new-Keynesian model with unemployement," Economics Working Papers 1076, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Mar 2008.
  53. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles L. Evans, 1998. "Monetary Policy Shocks: What Have We Learned and to What End?," NBER Working Papers 6400, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  54. Jonathan Heathcote & Kjetil Storesletten & Giovanni L. Violante, 2009. "Quantitative macroeconomics with heterogeneous households," Staff Report 420, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  55. Paul De Grauwe, 2010. "Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Macroeconomics," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 56(4), pages 465-497, December.
  56. Ara Stepanyan & Era Dabla-Norris & Ashot Anatolii Mkrtchyan, 2009. "A New Keynesian Model of the Armenian Economy," IMF Working Papers 09/66, International Monetary Fund.
  57. Mattesini Fabrizio & Rossi Lorenza, 2007. "Optimal monetary policy in economies with dual labor markets," wp.comunite 0009, Department of Communication, University of Teramo.
  58. Lawrence J. Christiano & Mathias Trabandt & Karl Walentin, 2010. "Introducing financial frictions and unemployment into a small open economy model," CQER Working Paper 2010-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  59. Jose-Victor Rios-Rull, 1997. "Computation of equilibria in heterogeneous agent models," Staff Report 231, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  60. Shahid Ali & Somia Irum & Asghar Ali, 2008. "Whether Fiscal Stance or Monetary Policy is Effective for Economic Growth in Case of South Asian Countries?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 791-799.
  61. Jonathan Morduch, 1995. "Income Smoothing and Consumption Smoothing," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1727, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  62. M.R. Wickens, 2010. "What's Wrong with Modern Macroeconomics? Why its Critics have Missed the Point -super-1," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 56(4), pages 536-553, December.
  63. Tobias Adrian & Hyun Song Shin, 2009. "Financial intermediaries and monetary economics," Staff Reports 398, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  64. Olivier J. Blanchard, 2008. "The State of Macro," NBER Working Papers 14259, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  65. Hostland, Doug, 2009. "Low-Income Countries' Access to Private Debt Markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4829, The World Bank.
  66. Paul De Grauwe, 2010. "Booms and Busts: New Keynesian and Behavioral Explanations," CESifo Working Paper Series 3293, CESifo Group Munich.
  67. Leff, Nathaniel H & Sato, Kazuo, 1980. "Macroeconomic Adjustment in Developing Countries: Instability, Short-Run Growth, and External Dependency," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 62(2), pages 170-79, May.
  68. Colciago, Andrea, 2005. "Rule of Thumb Consumers Meet Sticky Wages," MPRA Paper 3275, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Apr 2007.
  69. Frank Smets & Raf Wouters, 2002. "An estimated dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of the euro area," Working Paper Research 35, National Bank of Belgium.
  70. Barry Eichengreen & Ricardo Hausmann & Ugo Panizza, 2003. "Currency Mismatches, Debt Intolerance and Original Sin: Why They Are Not the Same and Why it Matters," NBER Working Papers 10036, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  71. MR Rosenzweig, 2001. "Savings behaviour in low-income countries," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(1), pages 40-54, Spring.
  72. Frankel, Jeffrey, 2011. "Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets: A Survey," Working Paper Series rwp11-003, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  73. Blunch, Niels-Hugo & Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Raju, Dhushyanth, 2001. "The informal sector revisited : a synthesis across space and time," Social Protection Discussion Papers 23308, The World Bank.
  74. Antonella Trigari, 2009. "Equilibrium Unemployment, Job Flows, and Inflation Dynamics," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(1), pages 1-33, 02.
  75. Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Webb, Steven B & Corsetti, Giancarlo, 1992. "Household Saving in Developing Countries: First Cross-Country Evidence," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(3), pages 529-47, September.
  76. Castillo, Paul & Montoro, Carlos, 2010. "Monetary Policy in the presence of Informal Labour Markets," Working Papers 2010-009, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
  77. Schorfheide, Frank, 2008. "Comment on: "Monetary policy under uncertainty in an estimated model with labor market frictions" by Luca Sala, Ulf Söderström, and Antonella Trigari," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(5), pages 1007-1010, July.
  78. Christopher Adam & Stephen O'Connell & Edward Buffie, 2008. "Aid volatility, monetary policy rules and the capital account in African economies," WEF Working Papers 0037, ESRC World Economy and Finance Research Programme, Birkbeck, University of London.
  79. Mark Gertler & Antonella Trigari, 2006. "Unemployment fluctuations with staggered Nash wage bargaining," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  80. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1993. "Credit Market Constraints, Consumption Smoothing, and the Accumulation of Durable Production Assets in Low-Income Countries: Investment in Bullocks in India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 223-44, April.
  81. James Heintz & Léonce Ndikumana, 2010. "Is There a Case for Formal Inflation Targeting in Sub-Saharan Africa?," Working Papers wp218, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
  82. Kenneth L. Judd & Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2010. "A Cluster-Grid Projection Method: Solving Problems with High Dimensionality," NBER Working Papers 15965, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  83. Sala, Luca & Söderström, Ulf & Trigari, Antonella, 2008. "Monetary policy under uncertainty in an estimated model with labor market frictions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(5), pages 983-1006, July.
  84. Gan, Wee-Beng & Soon, Lee-Ying, 1994. "Rational expectations, saving and anticipated changes in income: Evidence from Malaysia and Singapore," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 157-170.
  85. Arne Bigsten & Paul Collier & Stefan Dercon & Marcel Fafchamps & Bernard Gauthier & Jan Willem Gunning & Måns Söderbom & Abena Oduro & Remco Oostendorp & Catherine Pattillo & Francis Teal & Albert Zeu, 2000. "Credit constraints in manufacturing enterprises in Africa," CSAE Working Paper Series 2000-24, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  86. Christopher A. Sims, 1996. "Macroeconomics and Methodology," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(1), pages 105-120, Winter.
  87. Jihad Dagher & Jan Gottschalk & Rafael Portillo, 2010. "Oil Windfalls in Ghana; A DSGE Approach," IMF Working Papers 10/116, International Monetary Fund.
  88. Young, Eric R., 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using the Krusell-Smith algorithm and non-stochastic simulations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 36-41, January.
  89. SENBETA, Sisay Regassa, 2011. "A small open economy new Keynesian DSGE model for a foreign exchange constrained economy," Working Papers 2011004, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
  90. Hoover, Kevin D, 1995. "Facts and Artifacts: Calibration and the Empirical Assessment of Real-Business-Cycle Models," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 24-44, January.
  91. Andrea Gerali & Stefano Neri & Luca Sessa & Federico M. Signoretti, 2010. "Credit and Banking in a DSGE Model of the Euro Area," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(s1), pages 107-141, 09.
  92. Stephen G. Cecchetti & Lianfi Li, 2005. "Do Capital Adequacy Requirements Matter for Monetary Policy?," NBER Working Papers 11830, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  93. Alderman, H. & Paxson, C.H., 1992. "Do the Poor Insure? A Synthesis of the Literature on Risk and Consumption in Developing Countries," Papers 164, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
  94. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1982. "Time to Build and Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1345-70, November.
  95. Senbeta, Sisay, 2011. "A small open economy New Keynesian model for a foreign exchange constrained economy," MPRA Paper 29996, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  96. Vasco Cúrdia & Michael Woodford, 2008. "Credit frictions and optimal monetary policy," Working Paper Research 146, National Bank of Belgium.
  97. Paul Grauwe, 2010. "The scientific foundation of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 144(3), pages 413-443, September.
  98. Ale Bulir & A. Javier Hamann, 2003. "Aid Volatility: An Empirical Assessment," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 50(1), pages 4.
  99. Judd, Kenneth L., 1992. "Projection methods for solving aggregate growth models," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 410-452, December.
  100. Jordi Galí, 2008. "The new Keynesian approach to monetary policy analysis: Lessons and new directions," Economics Working Papers 1075, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  101. Cogley Timothy & Yagihashi Takeshi, 2010. "Are DSGE Approximating Models Invariant to Shifts in Policy?," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-33, October.
  102. George A. Akerlof, 2009. "How Human Psychology Drives the Economy and Why It Matters," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1175-1175.
  103. Lensink, Robert, 1995. "Foreign exchange constraints and developing countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 179-191, April.
  104. Romain Houssa & Christopher Otrok & Radu Puslenghea, 2010. "A Model for Monetary Policy Analysis for Sub-Saharan Africa," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 127-145, February.
  105. Calvo, Guillermo A., 1983. "Staggered prices in a utility-maximizing framework," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 383-398, September.
  106. Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei & Valli, Fernando, 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using the Krusell-Smith algorithm," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 42-49, January.
  107. George A. Akerlof, 2007. "The Missing Motivation in Macroeconomics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(1), pages 5-36, March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30931. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.