IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper

Does the Structure of Banking Markets Affect Economic Growth? Evidence from U.S. State Banking Markets

  • Kris James Mitchener
  • David C. Wheelock

This paper examines the relationship between the structure of banking markets and economic growth using a new dataset on manufacturing industry-level growth rates and banking market concentration for U.S. states during 1899-1929--a period when the manufacturing sector was expanding rapidly and restrictive branching laws segmented the U.S. banking system geographically. Unlike studies of modern developing and developed countries, we find that banking market concentration had a positive impact on manufacturing sector growth in the early twentieth century, with little variation across industries with different degrees of dependence on external financing or access to capital. However, because regulations affecting bank entry varied considerably across U.S. states and the industrial organization of the U.S. banking system differs markedly from those of other countries, we also examine the impact of other aspects of banking market structure and policy on growth. We continue to find that banking market concentration boosted industrial growth. In addition, we find evidence that a greater prevalence of branch banking and more banks per capita increased the growth of industries that rely relatively heavily on external financing or have greater access to external funding sources, while deposit insurance depressed growth in the manufacturing sector. Regulations on bank entry and other banking market characteristics thus appear to exert an independent influence on manufacturing growth in geographically fragmented banking markets.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w15710.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 15710.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Jan 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Mitchener, Kris James & Wheelock, David C., 2013. "Does the structure of banking markets affect economic growth? Evidence from U.S. state banking markets," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 161-178.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15710
Note: DAE
Contact details of provider: Postal:
National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.

Phone: 617-868-3900
Web page: http://www.nber.org
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Keay, Ian & Redish, Angela, 2004. "The micro-economic effects of financial market structure: evidence from 20th century North American steel firms," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 377-403, October.
  2. Mark A. Carlson & Kris James Mitchener, 2005. "Branch banking, bank competition, and financial stability," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2005-20, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Greenwood, Jeremy & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1990. "Financial Development, Growth, and the Distribution of Income," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 1076-1107, October.
  4. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R. & Lundblad, Christian, 2005. "Does financial liberalization spur growth?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 3-55, July.
  5. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "Law and Finance," Working Paper 19451, Harvard University OpenScholar.
  6. James R. Barth & Gerard Caprio, Jr. & Ross Levine, 2002. "Bank Regulation and Supervision: What Works Best?," NBER Working Papers 9323, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Raghuram G. Rajan & Rodney Ramcharan, 2009. "Land and Credit: A Study of the Political Economy of Banking in the United States in the Early 20th Century," NBER Working Papers 15083, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2004. "Regulations, market structure, institutions, and the cost of financial intermediation," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 593-626.
  9. Freeman, Donald G., 2002. "Did state bank branching deregulation produce large growth effects?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 75(3), pages 383-389, May.
  10. Neil H. Jacoby & Raymond J. Saulnier, 1947. "Appendix to "Business Finance and Banking"," NBER Chapters, in: Business Finance and Banking, pages 221-230 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
  12. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1996. "Financial Dependence and Growth," NBER Working Papers 5758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. W. Braddock Hickman, 1960. "Statistical Measures of Corporate Bond Financing Since 1900," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number hick60-1.
  14. Anil K. Kashyap & Raghuram Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Banks as Liquidity Providers: An Explanation for the Coexistence of Lending and Deposit-Taking," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 33-73, 02.
  15. Claessens, Stijn & Laeven, Luc, 2003. "What drives bank competition? some international evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3113, The World Bank.
  16. Raymond W. Goldsmith, 1958. "Financial Intermediaries in the American Economy Since 1900," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gold58-1.
  17. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
  18. Robert Marquez, 2002. "Competition, Adverse Selection, and Information Dispersion in the Banking Industry," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(3), pages 901-926.
  19. Guiso, Luigi & Sapienza, Paola & Zingales, Luigi, 2002. "Does Local Financial Development Matter?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3307, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  20. R. Alton Gilbert & Adam M. Zaretsky, 2003. "Banking antitrust: are the assumptions still valid?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 29-52.
  21. Mayer, Colin, 1987. "New Issues in Corporate Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 181, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  22. Rousseau, Peter L. & Sylla, Richard, 2005. "Emerging financial markets and early US growth," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 1-26, January.
  23. Barth, James R. & Caprio Jr, Gerard & Levine, Ross, 2001. "The regulation and supervision of banks around the world - a new database," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2588, The World Bank.
  24. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia, 2001. "Bank Competition and Firm Creation," IMF Working Papers 01/21, International Monetary Fund.
  25. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2004. "The cost of banking regulation," Proceedings 937, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  26. King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross, 1993. "Finance and growth : Schumpeter might be right," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1083, The World Bank.
  27. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-443.
  28. Wheelock, David C., 1992. "Regulation and Bank Failures: New Evidence from the Agricultural Collapse of the 1920s," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 52(04), pages 806-825, December.
  29. Paul Wachtel & Peter Rousseau, 1994. "Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth: A Historical Comparison of the U.S., U.K. and Canada," Working Papers 94-04, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  30. Alston Lee J. & Grove Wayne A. & Wheelock David C., 1994. "Why Do Banks Fail? Evidence from the 1920s," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 409-431, October.
  31. John H. Boyd & Edward C. Prescott, 1985. "Financial intermediary-coalitions," Staff Report 87, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  32. Nicola Cetorelli & Michele Gambera, 1999. "Banking market structure, financial dependence and growth: international evidence from industry data," Working Paper Series WP-99-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  33. Wall, Howard J., 2004. "Entrepreneurship and the deregulation of banking," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 333-339, March.
  34. Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti & Giovanni Dell & Ariccia#x2019, 2000. "Bank Competition and Firm Creation," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 00-20, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  35. White, Eugene, 1995. "Deposit insurance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1541, The World Bank.
  36. Burton A. Abrams & Margaret Z. Clarke & Russell F. Settle, 1999. "The Impact of Banking and Fiscal Policies on State-Level Economic Growth," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(2), pages 367-378, October.
  37. Clarke, Margaret Z, 2004. "Geographic Deregulation of Banking and Economic Growth," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(5), pages 929-42, October.
  38. Jith Jayaratne & Philip E. Strahan, 1996. "The Finance-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Bank Branch Deregulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 639-670.
  39. Richard S. Grossman, 2010. "Unsettled Account: The Evolution of Banking in the Industrialized World since 1800," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 9219.
  40. Wheelock, David C, 1992. "Deposit Insurance and Bank Failures: New Evidence from the 1920s," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(3), pages 530-43, July.
  41. Giedeman, Daniel C., 2005. "Branch Banking Restrictions and Finance Constraints in Early-Twentieth-Century America," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(01), pages 129-151, March.
  42. Nicola Cetorelli & Philip E. Strahan, 2004. "Finance as a Barrier to Entry: Bank Competition and Industry Structure in Local U.S. Markets," NBER Working Papers 10832, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  43. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Schleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 2001. "Investor Protection and Corporate Governance," Working Paper Series rwp01-017, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  44. Raddatz, Claudio, 2003. "Liquidity needs and vulnerability to financial udnerdevelopment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3161, The World Bank.
  45. Thomas Garrett & Gary Wagner & David Wheelock, 2007. "Regional disparities in the spatial correlation of state income growth, 1977–2002," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 41(3), pages 601-618, September.
  46. Levine, Ross & Zervos, Sara, 1998. "Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 537-58, June.
  47. Claessens, Stijn & Laeven, Luc, 2005. "Financial dependence, banking sector competition, and economic growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3481, The World Bank.
  48. White, Eugene Nelson, 1985. "The Merger Movement in Banking, 1919–1933," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(02), pages 285-291, June.
  49. Lance Davis, 1966. "The Capital Markets and Industrial Concentration: The U.S. and U.K., a Comparative Study," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 19(2), pages 255-272, 08.
  50. Marcello Bofondi & Giorgio Gobbi, 2004. "Bad Loans and Entry into Local Credit Markets," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 509, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  51. Lerner, Josh, 1995. " Venture Capitalists and the Oversight of Private Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 301-18, March.
  52. Levine, Ross, 1996. "Financial development and economic growth : views and agenda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1678, The World Bank.
  53. Rajeev Dehejia & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2007. "Financial Development and Pathways of Growth: State Branching and Deposit Insurance Laws in the United States, 1900–1940," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50, pages 239-272.
  54. Arjana Brezigar-Masten & Fabrizio Coricelli & Igor Masten, 2008. "Non-linear growth effects of financial development: Does financial integration matter?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00634188, HAL.
  55. Neil H. Jacoby & Raymond J. Saulnier, 1947. "Business Finance and Banking," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number jaco47-1.
  56. Rousseau, Peter L & Wachtel, Paul, 1998. "Financial Intermediation and Economic Performance: Historical Evidence from Five Industrialized Countries," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 657-78, November.
  57. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman, 1999. "Finance and the sources of growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2057, The World Bank.
  58. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2807-2833, December.
  59. Wheelock, David C., 1993. "Government Policy and Banking Market Structure in the 1920s," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 53(04), pages 857-879, December.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15710. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.