IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bdi/wptemi/td_509_04.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bad Loans and Entry into Local Credit Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Marcello Bofondi

    () (Bank of Italy, Economic Research Department)

  • Giorgio Gobbi

    () (Bank of Italy, Econimic Research Department)

Abstract

Is deregulation sufficient to grant free entry in local credit markets? Economic theory suggests at least two ways in which asymmetric information between incumbents and entrants can work as an endogenous barrier to entry. First, entrants� pool of applicants contains a larger share of potential customers who are not creditworthy because it includes all those would-be borrowers who were previously rejected by mature banks in the market. Second, since a substantial amount of the information used by banks to screen loan applicants and monitor borrowers is generated through repeated interaction with their customers and the local business community, incumbents� creditworthiness tests are likely to be more accurate. Other things being equal, entrants are therefore expected to experience higher loan default rates than incumbents. Using a unique database of 7,275 observations on 729 individual banks� lending in 95 Italian local markets, we find that both adverse selection and informational disadvantage play a significant role in explaining entrants� loan default rates. We argue that these endogenous barriers can help to explain why in many local credit markets by domestic and foreign banks was slow, even after substantial deregulation.

Suggested Citation

  • Marcello Bofondi & Giorgio Gobbi, 2004. "Bad Loans and Entry into Local Credit Markets," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 509, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_509_04
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/temi-discussione/2004/2004-0509/tema_509.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-443.
    2. Sharpe, Steven A, 1990. " Asymmetric Information, Bank Lending, and Implicit Contracts: A Stylized Model of Customer Relationships," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1069-1087, September.
    3. Jappelli, Tullio & Pagano, Marco & Bianco, Magda, 2005. "Courts and Banks: Effects of Judicial Enforcement on Credit Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(2), pages 223-244, April.
    4. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    5. Nicola Cetorelli & Paolo Angelini, 1999. "Bank competition and regulatory reform: the case of the Italian banking industry," Working Paper Series WP-99-32, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    6. Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
    7. Manning, Willard G., 1998. "The logged dependent variable, heteroscedasticity, and the retransformation problem," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 283-295, June.
    8. Allen N. Berger & Timothy H. Hannan, 1998. "The Efficiency Cost Of Market Power In The Banking Industry: A Test Of The "Quiet Life" And Related Hypotheses," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(3), pages 454-465, August.
    9. Shaffer, Sherrill, 1998. "The Winner's Curse in Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 359-392, October.
    10. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Ezra Friedman & Robert Marquez, 1999. "Adverse Selection as a Barrier to Entry in the Banking Industry," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(3), pages 515-534, Autumn.
    11. Mathias Dewatripont & Jean Tirole, 1994. "The prudential regulation of banks," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9539, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    12. Vives, Xavier, 1990. "Banking Competition and European Integration," CEPR Discussion Papers 373, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Robert G. King & Ross Levine, 1993. "Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-737.
    14. Robert B. Wilson, 1967. "Competitive Bidding with Asymmetric Information," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 13(11), pages 816-820, July.
    15. von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig, 2004. "Asymmetric information, bank lending and implicit contracts: the winner's curse," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 11-23, March.
    16. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
    17. Milgrom, Paul R & Weber, Robert J, 1982. "A Theory of Auctions and Competitive Bidding," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(5), pages 1089-1122, September.
    18. Chan, Yuk-Shee & Greenbaum, Stuart I. & Thakor, Anjan V., 1986. "Information reusability, competition and bank asset quality," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 243-253, June.
    19. Luigi Zingales & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2003. "Banks and Markets: The Changing Character of European Finance," NBER Working Papers 9595, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Claudia M Buch, 2002. "Financial Market Integration in the US: Lessons for Europe?," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 44(1), pages 46-71, April.
    21. Hendricks, Kenneth & Porter, Robert H, 1988. "An Empirical Study of an Auction with Asymmetric Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 865-883, December.
    22. Brander, James A. & Lewis, Tracy R., 1986. "Oligopoly and Financial Structure: The Limited Liability Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 956-970, December.
    23. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 849-870, June.
    24. Bonaccorsi di Patti, Emilia & Gobbi, Giorgio, 2001. "The changing structure of local credit markets: Are small businesses special?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2209-2237, December.
    25. Winton, Andrew, 1997. "Competition among Financial Intermediaries When Diversification Matters," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 307-346, October.
    26. Angelini, P. & Di Salvo, R. & Ferri, G., 1998. "Availability and cost of credit for small businesses: Customer relationships and credit cooperatives," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 925-954, August.
    27. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
    28. Broecker, Thorsten, 1990. "Credit-Worthiness Tests and Interbank Competition," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(2), pages 429-452, March.
    29. Black, Fischer, 1975. "Bank funds management in an efficient market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 323-339, December.
    30. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
    31. Timothy Hannan & Robin Prager, 1998. "The Relaxation of Entry Barriers in the Banking Industry: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 14(3), pages 171-188, December.
    32. Michael H. Riordan, 1992. "Competition and Bank Performance: A Theoretical Perspective," Papers 0026, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme.
    33. Robert Marquez, 2002. "Competition, Adverse Selection, and Information Dispersion in the Banking Industry," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(3), pages 901-926.
    34. Robert Wilson, 1977. "A Bidding Model of Perfect Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(3), pages 511-518.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2004. "The cost of banking regulation," Proceedings 937, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    2. Giorgio Gobbi & Roberta Zizza, 2007. "Does the Underground Economy Hold Back Financial Deepening? Evidence from the Italian Credit Market," CEP Discussion Papers dp0789, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    3. Felici Roberto & Pagnini Marcello, 2005. "Distance, bank heterogeneity and entry in local banking markets," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 557, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    4. Giorgio Gobbi & Francesca Lotti, 2004. "Entry Decisions and Adverse Selection: An Empirical Analysis of Local Credit Markets," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 26(3), pages 225-244, December.
    5. Soedarmono, Wahyoe & Machrouh, Fouad & Tarazi, Amine, 2011. "Bank market power, economic growth and financial stability: Evidence from Asian banks," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 460-470.
    6. Gian Paolo Barbetta & Luca Colombo & Stefano Colombo & Michele Grillo, 2016. "Intra-competitiveness and inter-competitiveness among mutual banks: the case of Trento," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 63(3), pages 195-214, September.
    7. Caterina Giannetti & Nicola Jentzsch & Giancarlo Spagnolo, 2010. "Information Sharing and Cross-border Entry in European Banking," CEIS Research Paper 178, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 21 Dec 2010.
    8. Benfratello, Luigi & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Sembenelli, Alessandro, 2008. "Banks and innovation: Microeconometric evidence on Italian firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 197-217, November.
    9. Mitchener, Kris James & Wheelock, David C., 2013. "Does the structure of banking markets affect economic growth? Evidence from U.S. state banking markets," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 161-178.
    10. Pietro Alessandrini & Manuela Croci & Alberto Zazzaro, 2005. "The geography of banking power: role of function distance," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 58(235), pages 129-167.
    11. Soedarmono, Wahyoe & Machrouh, Fouad & Tarazi, Amine, 2013. "Bank competition, crisis and risk taking: Evidence from emerging markets in Asia," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 196-221.
    12. Gabriel Jiménez & Jose A. Lopez & Jesús Saurina, 2007. "How does competition impact bank risk-taking?," Working Paper Series 2007-23, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    13. Hendrik Hakenes & Iftekhar Hasan & PhilIP Molyneux & Ru Xie, 2015. "Small Banks and Local Economic Development," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 19(2), pages 653-683.
    14. Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 2004. "The institutional memory hypothesis and the procyclicality of bank lending behavior," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 458-495, October.
    15. Luigi Pascali, 2016. "Banks and Development: Jewish Communities in the Italian Renaissance and Current Economic Performance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 98(1), pages 140-158, March.
    16. GIANNETTI, Caterina, 2007. "Intensity of competition and market structure in the Italian banking industry," CORE Discussion Papers 2007041, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    17. Bagayev, Igor & Najman, Boris, 2014. "Money to fill the gap? Local financial development and energy intensity in Europe and Central Asia," MPRA Paper 55193, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Maxwell Sandada & Agness Kanhukamwe, 2016. "The study sought to analyse the factors that lead to rising credit risk in the Zimbabwean banking sector," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 12(1), pages 80-94, February.
    19. Valerio Vacca, 2011. "An unexpected crisis? Looking at pricing effectiveness of different banks," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 814, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    20. Marco Valentini, 2006. "Ristrutturazione del sistema creditizio, piccole e medie imprese e crescita economica nel mezzogiorno," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0065, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
    21. Francesca Gagliardi, 2009. "Financial development and the growth of cooperative firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 439-464, April.
    22. Luigi Pascali, 2016. "Banks and Development: Jewish Communities in the Italian Renaissance and Current Economic Performance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 98(1), pages 140-158, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Credit Markets; Barriers to Entry; Winner's Curse; Asymmetric Information;

    JEL classification:

    • D82 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_509_04. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/bdigvit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.