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Profit Sharing, Wage Formation and Flexible Outsourcing under Labor Market Imperfection


  • Koskela, Erkki

    () (University of Helsinki)

  • König, Jan

    () (Free University of Berlin)


We combine profit sharing and outsourcing, if the wage for worker is decided by a labor union to analyze how does the implementation of profit sharing affect individual effort and the bargained wage and thus outsourcing? We find that profit sharing and the wage level have an individual effort-augmenting effect and therefore increase productivity. We also find that the wage effect of profit sharing is ambiguous. There is a wage decreasing substitution effect, but on the other hand, there is a wage increasing effect via labor demand elasticity so that outsourcing and employment effects are also ambiguous.

Suggested Citation

  • Koskela, Erkki & König, Jan, 2010. "Profit Sharing, Wage Formation and Flexible Outsourcing under Labor Market Imperfection," IZA Discussion Papers 4707, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4707

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Erkki Koskela & Rune Stenbacka, 2006. "Flexible and Committed Profit Sharing with Wage Bargaining: Implications for Equilibrium Unemployment," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 87(2), pages 159-180, March.
    2. Jellal, Mohamed & Zenou, Yves, 2000. "A dynamic efficiency wage model with learning by doing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 99-105, January.
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    6. Jakob Munch & Jan Skaksen, 2009. "Specialization, outsourcing and wages," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 145(1), pages 57-73, April.
    7. Martin Conyon & Richard B. Freeman, 2004. "Shared Modes of Compensation and Firm Performance U.K. Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: Seeking a Premier Economy: The Economic Effects of British Economic Reforms, 1980-2000, pages 109-146 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2006. "International Outsourcing and the Productivity of Low-Skilled Labor in the EU," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 44(1), pages 98-108, January.
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    10. Erkki Koskela & Jan König, 2009. "Can Profit Sharing Lower Flexible Outsourcing? A Note," CESifo Working Paper Series 2606, CESifo Group Munich.
    11. Douglas L. Kruse, 1993. "Does Profit Sharing Affect Productivity?," NBER Working Papers 4542, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Alexander Hijzen & Holger Görg & Robert C. Hine, 2005. "International Outsourcing and the Skill Structure of Labour Demand in the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(506), pages 860-878, October.
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    More about this item


    labor market imperfection; flexible outsourcing; profit sharing; employee effort;

    JEL classification:

    • E23 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Production
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
    • J82 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Labor Force Composition

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