IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/4542.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Does Profit Sharing Affect Productivity?

Author

Listed:
  • Douglas L. Kruse

Abstract

Existing research tends to show that profit-sharing plans for employees are associated with higher company productivity and profitability, though the causality and mechanisms are unclear. This study uses new data from a survey of 500 U.S. public companies, and panel data on corporate performance, to examine the relationship between productivity measures and the adoption and presence of profit sharing. Controlling for a variety of influences on productivity, profit sharing adoption is found to be associated with average productivity increases of 4-5%, with no subsequent positive or negative trend. The productivity increase is dispersed; it is found to be larger for small companies and for cash plans, and to be unaffected when controlling for personnel policies which may affect productivity. There is, however, no evidence on the mechanisms through which profit sharing may affect productivity, since there are no strong interactions with information-sharing or other policies in affecting productivity.

Suggested Citation

  • Douglas L. Kruse, 1993. "Does Profit Sharing Affect Productivity?," NBER Working Papers 4542, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4542
    Note: LS
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4542.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Alchian, Armen A & Demsetz, Harold, 1972. "Production , Information Costs, and Economic Organization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(5), pages 777-795, December.
    2. Baker, George P & Jensen, Michael C & Murphy, Kevin J, 1988. " Compensation and Incentives: Practice vs. Theory," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 593-616, July.
    3. Morris M. Kleiner & Marvin L. Bouillon, 1988. "Providing Business Information to Production Workers: Correlates of Compensation and Profitability," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 41(4), pages 605-617, July.
    4. Verbeek, Marno & Nijman, Theo, 1992. "Testing for Selectivity Bias in Panel Data Models," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 33(3), pages 681-703, August.
    5. Estrin, Saul & Jones, Derek C. & Svejnar, Jan, 1987. "The productivity effects of worker participation: Producer cooperatives in western economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 40-61, March.
    6. James A. Brickley & Kathleen T. Hevert, 1991. "Direct Employee Stock Ownership: An Empirical Investigation," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 20(2), Summer.
    7. Paula B. Voos, 1987. "Managerial Perceptions of the Economic Impact of Labor Relations Programs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 40(2), pages 195-208, January.
    8. Bassi, Laurie J, 1984. "Estimating the Effect of Training Programs with Non-Random Selection," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(1), pages 36-43, February.
    9. Wadhwani, Sushil & Wall, Martin, 1990. "The Effects of Profit-Sharing on Employment, Wages, Stock Returns and Productivity: Evidence from UK Micro-data," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(399), pages 1-17, March.
    10. Barry T. Hirsch, 1991. "Labor Unions and the Economic Performance of Unions," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number luepf, November.
    11. Verbeek, Marno, 1990. "On the estimation of a fixed effects model with selectivity bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 267-270, November.
    12. Levine, David I., 1992. "Piece rates, output restriction, and conformism," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 473-489, September.
    13. Hausman, Jerry A & Wise, David A, 1979. "Attrition Bias in Experimental and Panel Data: The Gary Income Maintenance Experiment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 455-473, March.
    14. Charles F. Manski, 1989. "Anatomy of the Selection Problem," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(3), pages 343-360.
    15. James Chelius & Robert S. Smith, 1990. "Profit Sharing and Employment Stability," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(3), pages 256-2-273-, April.
    16. Nicholas Wilson & Michael J. Peel, 1991. "The Impact on Absenteeism and Quits of Profit-Sharing and other Forms of Employee Participation," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(3), pages 454-468, April.
    17. Jones, Derek C & Svejnar, Jan, 1985. "Participation, Profit Sharing, Worker Ownership and Efficiency in Italian Producer Cooperative," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 52(208), pages 449-465, November.
    18. Kruse, Douglas L, 1992. "Profit Sharing and Productivity: Microeconomic Evidence from the United States," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(410), pages 24-36, January.
    19. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    20. Cable, John & Wilson, Nicholas, 1989. "Profit-Sharing and Productivity: An Analysis of UK Engineering Firms," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(396), pages 366-375, June.
    21. Cahuc, Pierre & Dormont, Brigitte, 1997. "Profit-sharing: Does it increase productivity and employment? A theoretical model and empirical evidence on French micro data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 293-319, September.
    22. Charles Brown, 1990. "Firms' Choice of Method of Pay," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(3), pages 165-1-182-, April.
    23. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald & Peter Sanfey, 1996. "Wages, Profits, and Rent-Sharing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(1), pages 227-251.
    24. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1987. "Profit Sharing--Can It Work?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(1), pages 1-19, March.
    25. Steven G. Allen & Robert L. Clark, 1987. "Pensions and Firm Performance," NBER Working Papers 2266, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    26. Heckman, James J. & Robb, Richard Jr., 1985. "Alternative methods for evaluating the impact of interventions : An overview," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 239-267.
    27. Will Bartlett & John Cable & Saul Estrin & Derek C. Jones & Stephen C. Smith, 1992. "Labor-Managed Cooperatives and Private Firms in North Central Italy: An Empirical Comparison," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 46(1), pages 103-118, October.
    28. Bell, Linda A & Neumark, David, 1993. "Lump-Sum Payments and Profit-Sharing Plans in the Union Sector of the United States Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(418), pages 602-619, May.
    29. Putterman, Louis & Skillman, Gil Jr., 1988. "The incentive effects of monitoring under alternative compensation schemes," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 109-119, March.
    30. Defourney, Jacques & Estrin, Saul & Jones, Derek C., 1985. "The effects of workers' participation on enterprise performance : Empirical evidence from French cooperatives," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 197-217, June.
    31. Roger T. Kaufman, 1992. "The Effects of Improshare on Productivity," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 45(2), pages 311-322, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Juin-Jen Chang, 2006. "Profit Sharing, Risk Sharing, and Firm Size: Implications of Efficiency Wages," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 261-273, October.
    2. Erkki Koskela & Jan König, 2010. "Profit Sharing, Wage Formation and Flexible Outsourcing under Labor Market Imperfection," CESifo Working Paper Series 2925, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Jan König & Erkki Koskela, 2013. "The Role of Profit Sharing in Dual Labour Markets with Flexible Outsourcing," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 27(4), pages 351-370, December.
    4. Andrews, Martyn & Bellmann, Lutz & Schank, Thorsten & Upward, Richard, 2010. "The impact of financial participation on workers' compensation (Der Einfluss von finanzieller Mitarbeiterbeteiligung auf die Entlohnung der Arbeitnehmer)," Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung - Journal for Labour Market Research, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 43(1), pages 72-89.
    5. Ohkusa, Yasushi & Ohtake, Fumio, 1997. "The Productivity Effects of Information Sharing, Profit Sharing, and ESOPs," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 385-402, September.
    6. Lin, Chung-cheng & Chang, Juin-jen & Lai, Ching-chong, 2002. "Profit sharing as a worker discipline device," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 815-828, November.
    7. Erkki Koskela & Jan König, 2009. "Can Profit Sharing Lower Flexible Outsourcing? A Note," CESifo Working Paper Series 2606, CESifo Group Munich.
    8. John M. Abowd & Felipe Balmaceda & David Kaplan., "undated". "Accounting Profits, Market Profits, and the Compensation of Regular Employees," ILADES-Georgetown University Working Papers inv119, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines.
    9. Koskela, Erkki & König, Jan, 2009. "Can Profit Sharing Lower Flexible Outsourcing? A Note," IZA Discussion Papers 4063, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. repec:iab:iabzaf:v:43:i:1:p:72-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Bryson, Alex & Freeman, Richard B., 2007. "Doing the right thing? does fair share capitalism improve workplace performance," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4964, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    12. Cecilia Navarra & Ermanno Tortia, 2014. "Employer Moral Hazard, Wage Rigidity, and Worker Cooperatives: A Theoretical Appraisal," Journal of Economic Issues, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(3), pages 707-726.
    13. Koskela, Erkki & König, Jan, 2011. "The Role of Profit Sharing in Dual Labour Markets with Flexible Outsourcing," IZA Discussion Papers 5798, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Chang, Juin-jen & Lai, Ching-chong & Lin, Chung-cheng, 2003. "Profit sharing, worker effort, and double-sided moral hazard in an efficiency wage model," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 75-93, March.
    15. Jan König & Erkki Koskela, 2013. "Can Committed Profit Sharing Lower Flexible Outsourcing?," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1), pages 79-95, March.
    16. Daniel J. Benjamin, 2015. "A Theory of Fairness in Labour Markets," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 66(2), pages 182-225, June.
    17. Knez, Marc & Simester, Duncan, 2001. "Firm-Wide Incentives and Mutual Monitoring at Continental Airlines," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(4), pages 743-772, October.
    18. Koskela, Erkki & König, Jan, 2010. "Profit Sharing, Wage Formation and Flexible Outsourcing under Labor Market Imperfection," IZA Discussion Papers 4707, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4542. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.